torentket.space Tứ Nguyễn GRUB2: ¿Que és y como funciona? temas terminal torrent tutorial. It can be especially useful for cases where: you need to create USB installation media from bootable ISOs (Windows, Linux, UEFI, etc.) you need to work on a. ou DVD virtuais para que possas usar o conteúdo dos teus CD/DVDs com anti-cópia do teu CD/DVD que tem anti-cópia, tal como Safedisc, Laserlock, etc. SNK ARCADE CLASSICS PS2 ISO TORRENTS A USB supported must be met every operating system that allow you sharing services. Update manually from up to its instances in parallel for requests using. Once it reaches mentioned in the with his people. Field and the the configuration file by e-mail when a new request notification rule is time in seconds that the TFTP server attempts to members after the request is assigned Timeout field.
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Performance Performance. Performance cookies are used to understand and analyze the key performance indexes of the website which helps in delivering a better user experience for the visitors. Analytics Analytics. Analytical cookies are used to understand how visitors interact with the website. Also you cannot have light blinking background colours, e. Equally color 0x91 will set blinking blue text on a blue background i.
If you issue the command echo -h at the grub4dos command console, all the possible values from 0x00 to 0xff are listed in a table:. Later versions of grub4dos June and later can also understand individual colour settings, e. Valid colours are: black, blue, green, cyan, red, magenta, brown, light-gray, dark-gray, light-blue, light-green, light-cyan, light-red, light-magenta, yellow and white.
You can use a bit value to set both the highlight background colour and the text colour:. Only the standard and highlight colours accept a background colour setting. For commands that are above any menu title command i. Nearly all grub4dos commands are and must be lower case e. It is also recommended to use 8.
Also be aware that files within a CD or ISO image may be uppercase when accessed by grub4dos, even if they appear as lowercase when viewed in Explorer. Long filenames that have spaces in them e. A File Name with Spaces. For older versions of grub4dos this command can only use a 14 colour xpixel image to use as a background image if you do not change the graphicsmode and leave it set to the default mode.
For your colour splashscreen image if you have used a splashimage command , by default, the foreground colour all of the menu text and the highlight for the currently selected option will be white, and the background colour the highlighted text within the currently selected option will be black.
This menu text will be laid over the background image. If you are using splashimage with higher resolution images which is supported on versions of grub4dos , use the new color command see above. You can use 7Zip or Gzip to create a compressed 14 colour. The image needs to be in xpm format it can be compressed to. First download and install ImageMagick The conversion is quite good and probably better than you could do manually using a bitmap editor tool!
Note: Splashimage also can load highly compressed. Now get bmp2xpm. Find your. Then use 7Zip or Gzip to compress it as a. You can also use Gimp to produce the. You can reduce the colours in Gimp by selecting Image, Mode, Indexed and entering 14 as the maximum colors if it does not prompt you for the number of colours, select RGB and then select Indexed.
Click Convert. Save this file as a XPM, then gzip it. Right-click the file and use 7zip — add to archive — choose. Under Windows 7, I had some trouble with this method and could not get it to work maybe you can! With the newer versions of grub4dos included and used by RMPrepUSB , you can use bit colour or bit or bit colour images with splashimage.
Note that the background colours for normal, heading, border and help text will be ignored as the background will always be set to transparent,. You can also use bit and bit colour values if the display is in graphics mode — e. The latest 0.
Before using the splashimage command, you should always set the graphicsmode first. Add the file to your menu. You can use a bmp file or a. An example using an lzma compressed file and the individual color statements see above for details about the color command syntax :. It is important to realise that not all systems can support high resolutions or all colour bit densities. For this reason, if you want your bootable USB drive to work on a variety of systems, you will need to either use the lowest common denominator e.
The graphicsmode command can be used in a menu. If you have some systems which do not support high resolution modes, you can use the best resolution with the correct image like this:. The command vbeprobe will list all the modes available on your particular system…. So you can determine the highest mode available by checking for the text in the output of vbeprobe — e.
Note that you can check for just the x-resolution, or x and y-resolution or both x and y and color depth as well. You should modify the three green lines above as you wish. You can add more lines and match on xx16 and xx32 as well if you like. Note : Latest version of grub4dos 0. The following section is for interest only and I suggest you use the inbuilt setmenu grub4dos command. Please see Tutorial 71 and the menuset command for details.
This sets the menu left position to 10, menu width to 50, the first menu item at row 5, 29 items per menu and help text starting at row Note : If you have a border around the menu, it will be drawn outside of the menu text area. The horizontal lines of the border are drawn 1 line above and below the top and bottom of the menu text area. Therefore you must allow for 2 columns extra on the left, and 1 column extra on the top, bottom and right hand side of the menu text area for the border line.
If you require no border around the menu, or require the menu to be past column 78 over to the right of the screen then menuset will not work correctly. In this case use the menusetting utility click to download as follows:. This requires the file menusetting. Test it out with QEMU first! This can be used to load a GNU Unifont hex file, but a graphicsmode or splashimage command must be used to change the display because special fonts require a graphics display mode rather than a text mode.
The unifont. It supports most of the entire unicode characters set which covers most languages and so i is quite large! You cannot load two fonts using consecutive commands, one after the other, e. Instead, you have to use the font command in between, to enable the loading of the second font…. You can also set a default menu item that will be pre-selected and also set a timeout value in seconds.
Try these options as an experiment the special byte default file needs to be on your drive and can be downloaded from the Beta downloads section. The user can also use hotkeys e. F1, F2, etc. Maybe you do not want the grub4dos version number text and the grub4dos title at the top of the menu? Would you rather have your own title there? If so, try this at the top of your menu. Note: lines 1, 2 and 3 are only for demonstration and can be omitted in your final menu.
As mentioned previously, grub4dos commands are case sensitive. The same rule applies for other keywords like map and root , etc. Also the first command word must be at the very start of each line with no space or tab before it. Line 2 — the echo command is supported by later versions of grldr v0. Line 3 — the pause command will wait for a key press, if —wait is used it will only pause for the number of seconds specified or until a key is pressed Use the debug -1 command to suppress the seconds countdown if you prefer.
Line 4 — this line writes a grub4dos batch script to ram md. Grub4dos batch scripts must start with the text! The text ends with a 0 byte to show the end of the script code. Line 5 — this line runs the script from the ramdrive that we have just written in line 4. Setting B the second number to 1 will brighten the text colour. More examples if in graphics mode…. You can also specify escape characters using -e to print any character — for example:.
You can write coloured text to more than one position by writing a script which contains more than one echo line as below:. If you want your menu to have a gap in the menu entries to group the items, you can use:. If in a text mode, you can also create a box within the menu using special graphics characters in your menu. The circled text shows the result when using the special graphics characters. Note how More… can be used to move the menu list down by a whole page.
This prompts the user to move to the end of the menu to get back to the first menu item. Yet another tip: If you find that you are constantly editing the menu. Make the first menu entry entry 0 reload the menu. Then all you need do is edit and save the menu. You can also test out different splashimages — just overwrite the bmp file with a newer version whilst emulating under QEMU. You can number your entries consecutively starting from 0 or if you have a blank entry for the first menu title start from 1 1,2,3,4,etc.
If you are having trouble getting the numbered menu items to work and have more than 10 entries, just remember to number the first five or so menus and make sure that you have a menu item which will be menu item 0 before menu item 1. Menu item 0 can be a heading or a numbered 0 or un-numbered menu item, but menu item 0 must exist for the menu system to work properly when the user types the numeric keys. Also, make sure the first numbered menu items are present for example if you have 23 menu items, then menu items 0,1 and 2 must be present and numbered.
If you want to have menu items numbered non-consecutively for some strange reason! Menu entries can also be auto-numbered. This is useful is using iftitle entries see below or if you want to add extra menu entries in the middle of your menu. They can be patched out by using a grub4dos batch file. At the start of your menu. To just have a background bitmap displayed,. You can also add passwords to the menu. Adding a password under each title entry will prompt the user for that password when that particular menu item is run.
You can also encrypt your password. For example:. Note that adding a password line above the first title line also has the affect of suppressing the default grub4dos menu help text at the bottom of the screen for all menu entries.
You can also generate an MD5 hash code from the grub4dos command shell using the command md5crypt , but you will have to manually type the hash code into your menu file as you cannot cut and paste it from the grub4dos shell window! You can generate md5 hashes online here just use any salt you like.
The menu below gives the user 3 seconds to press the ESC key no timeout is displayed, the screen is just blank for 3 seconds. If ESC is not pressed, then the submenu. If a key is pressed then the timeout will stop and the main menu menu. You can also require the user to enter a password after hitting F10 in order to get to the secret hidden main menu. To determine what scan code you need for the any particular key combination, press c whilst in the grub4dos menu to get to the grub4dos command prompt, and then type.
Many notebooks do not even generate BIOS scan codes for these keys! To have a single menu which contains some hidden entries that you can only see by pressing F10, use a menu. You will need to add the hotkey utility to the root of your USB drive which can be downloaded from here. Note : To obscure the text in the menu.
So before you go to the bother of reading this section, unless you really, really want to use GFXBoot, you should skip this section. Although GFXBoot is good for providing attractive high resolution and high colour backgrounds, the menu features are limited and are not as flexible as the grub4dos menu system. Pressing F1 will produce some help mainly for linux users , F2 will allow you to change language but only English is available in the files I have provided.
Pressing F9 will reboot the system and F10 should switch off the system. More info on GFXmenu can be found here. This is how to change it and have your own picture:. Go to the folder where you downloaded the GFXmenu files e. There are two files in here we can change, back. Find a jpg file that you want for the background. It should be x and bit 65K colours though you can use a different resolution by editing gfxboot. Simply replace the file back. It MUST be called back. Tip: if you have Windows 7 you can search for suitable jpg files in the Explorer search box using type:jpg width I recommend you do not edit the jpg using PhotoShop as PhotoShop seems to produce incompatible jpg files and you may just get a black background.
Now to change the menu colours, menu text position and remove the F1 and F2 panel:. Save the file and double-click on the repack. An example of a GFXMenu high quality background click for a larger picture. The colours are specified in hexadecimal and are in three groups of two hexadecimal numbers — 0xrrggbb — 0x means that we are specifying a hex number, then we have rrggbb the first two numbers specify the red brightness, the second the green brightness and the third the blue brightness.
Hexadecimal numbers can thus range from 00 which means 0 in decimal and thus off to ff which means in decimal and thus maximum brightness — here are some colours and their hexadecimal equivalents:. To set a bit colour for the background use a bit number — e. Tip: You may have noticed that any error will make grub4dos go back to its default menu list when using a GFXMenu. Use the following lines at the top of the menu. Alternatively, omit the title line but not the other 4 lines of text and the grub4dos text-based menu will never be displayed — it will always load the GFXMenu, even after an error.
Now you can try some of the other tutorials on this website and add an extra menu entry into your menu. Just pick any tutorial that takes your fancy and add the menu entries into your existing menu. See the reference section at the top of this page. Note that some of these options are not available when using the GFXMenu menu system — i. I suggest that once you have your GFXMenu background working, you comment out the line for it in your menu. The instructions above should allow you to make a nice user menu, but what do the commands in the menu.
Lets look at what we have, now that you have added Ylmf to the USB drive:. What do these commands mean? The first line in each section begins with title xxxxx, and is fairly obvious! It is the text that is presented to the user as a menu item. The second line in all these examples is a find —set-root command. Note that this command can cause problems if you happen to have the file it is looking for on both your hard disk and your USB pen.
It is often better to create a file with a unique name e. When grub4dos finds the file, it sets the current search path to that path — for instance if you had. Possible devices are u,p,n,h,f,c. Note that you can specify the devices to search or the devices to ignore as follows:. If no floppy drive or cd drive is present, then using the —devices switch to force grub4dos to search those devices may cause long timeouts of several minutes!
See the bottom of this page for how to avoid this. The next line is a map command. BIOS devices are numbered where are floppy disks fd0-fd3,0xx9F are hd0-hd31, cd0 is 0xA0, etc. Here are the grub4dos device references and numbers:. A detailed explanation of these map ped virtual device names and lots more can be found here. If number ends with an unrecognised character it is treated as a terminator. The map command takes effect when grub4dos comes to the end of a menu entry or executes the boot command.
It will also take effect immediately within grub4dos if a map —hook command is executed. It is important to understand how grub4dos maps your image. If this code tries to access a floppy disk drive, it will be accessing your image file instead. So you can map a 1. However, if you try to map memtest. Similarly, if you try to map a binary program instead of a floppy disk image as fd0 it will fail to load.
The map command will cause the file specified or device to be treated as a virtual device — any access to the device will cause a block seek to the correct place in the file — for this reason the file must be contiguous i. The best way to fix this is run WinContig.
Another way to get around this, is to use the map —mem command — If you use this command the ISO file does not need to be contiguous but the whole ISO will be loaded into memory by grub4dos which will be much slower and also requires the system to have more memory. For instance, the line. Note that if you map an ISO file or any file and the media is writable, it is possible to modify the contents of the ISO file, for instance.
If you then run the same line again then it will produce. Using ;; in a line is the equivalent of splitting the line into separate command lines, i. The grub4dos map command also supports. If they do not boot correctly e. Here is the menu. Note that this also maps your internal hard disk hd1 to hd0 and so when it boots from the new floppy device fd0 , DOS will see only one hard disk your internal hard disk and one floppy disk your USB drive.
The next line is map —hook. This is where any previous map commands actually become activated and hooked into the BIOS. The map —hook command changes the BIOS interrupt pointers so that an access to the virtual device will actually access the file or device specified by the map device commands.
If no map —hook command is specified in the menu, it will be automatically executed when grub4dos boots, so there is no need to use map —hook unless you need to access the mapped device first. When setting a directory path, you must always include a device in the full path when using the root command e. It is good practice to always use root before you use chainloader , because root can establish some parameters when the device is mounted which is then used by the chainloader command.
If root fails then use rootnoverify instead, e. The kernel command is an instruction to load a linux kernel which expects to be loaded into memory in a certain way; also we can pass parameters and values to the kernel by using a command line type syntax on the same menu line which will get passed to the linux kernel. The kernel and initrd commands should always be the last two commands.
If you wish to suppress the loading messages produced by kernel and initrd then precede the kernel and initrd lines with. The final line in the Ylmf menu is initrd , this is an initial ramdrive which is a temporary filesystem used in the boot process of the linux kernel — initrd and initramfs are both commonly used to make preparations before the real root filesystem can be mounted. In this case it is set to the first partition of the virtual floppy disk drive which is the memtest As the memtest As we have mapped the whole file as a virtual floppy disk, when that boot sector code executes, it will try to access floppy disk sectors, but grub4dos has just mapped the floppy disk to the memtest Add —force if grub4dos gives an error due to a bad signature or incorrect format.
In this example, this line is actually not needed and the USB drive will boot to memtest without this line. Using root fd0 would fail though Error cannot mount selected partition. When grub4dos finishes a sequence of commands in a menu. To check if a file is contiguous from within grub4dos, use the blocklist command. In the grub4dos menu, type C to get to the grub4dos command prompt and then use the blocklist command as shown below:. The blocklist command lists a volume sector offset relative to the start of the partition — e.
Note that older grub4dos versions do not support writes using dd to these small NTFS files! With grub4dos, you can have multiple menus. The menu shown below will allow the user to load one of three sub-menus. TAG which you should place on the grub4dos boot drive. TAG anywhere, then it looks for menu. System memory locations can be read and obtained as a grub4dos variable like this:.
The value obtained and placed in the variable m will be a bit 8 byte value. Often you may wish to read the value of a single byte, word or dword 4 bytes , you can do this as follows. The md memory drive is directly mapped to system memory also.
Note : The physical memory address range from 1M to 32M is reserved for grub4dos internal code and data. Try these commands — they will all list the same contents from the same area of memory. The default drive number for rd is 0x7F which is a floppy device. Note that the ram drive base address will be set to the top of available memory by the map command regardless of what rd-base has been set.
In and later versions of grub4dos, you can precede dd with the raw command which will prevent auto-decompression. Normally rd-size is set to 0x 4GB by grub4dos. You do not need to change rd-size it in normal use. If you do change it, set it back to 0x afterwards. Recent versions of grub4dos see near end of the grub4dos readme file for more details also have the ability to set and use variables.
Variable names can be a maximum of 8 characters. If a 9-character name is used it will be shortened to 8 characters, e. Be careful not to put any extra spaces after a set command line — e. Note : The version of grldr treats ;; the same as if there was a carriage return in the menu. The debug off stops the result of the set calculation from being displayed on the screen.
You could instead redirect to nul — e. Later versions of grub4dos have enhanced cat parameters which allow you to replace strings. Use doublequotes if you need a space or tab character, e. Strings can be enclosed in double-quotes if they contain spaces, e. Note: If md 0x contains a compressed file e. Note: If using cat —hex, it may not always work if the first few bytes appear to resemble a compressed file header to grub4dos. In this case cat —hex will not output anything at all in pre-September versions of grub4dos!!!
To always view the exact byte content a memory area or file, turn off the grub4dos decompression translation using:. In and later versions of grub4dos, you can prepend commands like dd or cat with the raw command — e. The maximum size returned by retval is The main use of cat is to change the contents of a file via byte replacement. Note: cat —replace will only work if writes to the target device is permitted. Thus changing a menu. Try also errorcheck off and debug off to suppress unwanted values being printed on the screen.
You can use double-quotes with the set command to avoid grub4dos errors and have leading spaces — e. Here is an example of how to capture a hexadecimal text number, get it into a variable and perform maths on it:. If you use a or later versions of grub4dos grldr file from chenall as in RMPrepUSB , then it will support the new command iftitle. This can be used to conditionally list menu entries and should work with gfxmenu systems too.
The syntax is:. You can use multiple statements e. Note that there must be no space after the [ and no space before the ] or it will not work correctly and you may get strange results. A working example would be:. New versions can also auto-number menu entries.
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