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Maria H. Oen and Unn Falkeid to be identified as the authors of the editorial material, and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Date: Last quarter of 14th century. Purchased by J. Pierpont Morgan — in 16 1. Pierpont Morgan — in 17 1. Date: Last quarter of fourteenth century. Pierpont Morgan — in 18 6. Siena, Biblioteca comunale degli Intronati, I. Date: Photo: Biblioteca comunale degli Intronati 6. Siena, Biblioteca comunale degli Intronati, T.
Date: first quarter of fifteenth century. Date: First quarter of fifteenth century. Johannes Bollandus, Godefridus Henschenius, et al. Birgitte, ed. Isak Collijn. SFSS, Ser. Hans Aili Stockholm: , 47—81 Extrav. Birgitta of Sweden, Reuelaciones Extrauagantes, ed. Lennart Hollmann. Con appendice di documenti sul culto e la canonizzazione di S. Fontes Vitae S. Catharinae Senensis Historici 9 Milan: Prol. Carl-Gustaf Undhagen Stockholm: , —40 Rev. English translations have been taken from The Revelations of St.
Birgitta of Sweden, trans. His interests include medieval Swedish literature, philology and manuscript studies, medieval sermons, and preaching. Andersson previously served as the editor of medieval charters at the Diplomatarium Suecanum Swedish National Archives and has worked and published extensively on the preserved sermons from Vadstena Abbey.
She has published extensively on late medieval and early modern Italian literature and history. His principal field of expertise is the historical anthropology of Christianity sainthood, miracle beliefs, stigmata, visions, healing, magic, and witchcraft. Recent publications include the edition of the complete medieval Latin hagiographical corpus on St. Rouxpetel is currently Associate Professor at the University of Angers. She is a socio corrispondente honorary member of the Accademia degli Intronati, Siena.
His specialized areas of research include Western medieval history, history of Christianity, medieval conceptions of holiness and sacralization of space and time, Francis of Assisi and Franciscan history, and dissent and orthodoxy in the West 10th to the 15thcenturies. His numerous publications include Catherine de Sienne. Vie et passions Cerf, , trans. Acknowledgements The inspiration for this volume lies with two workshops held at the Norwegian Institute in Rome in and in the former monastery of the Ordo Sanctissimi Salvatoris in Vadstena, Sweden, in , where scholars from various disciplinary and geographical backgrounds met to discuss the connections between the two trecento authors, Birgitta of Sweden and Catherine of Siena.
The administrative staff of the Norwegian Institute in Rome and of the Department of Culture and Aesthetics, Stockholm University, provided invaluable assistance with the organization of the two workshops. We are deeply grateful to all of the participants in our fruitful and inspiring meetings in Rome and Vadstena, and to the contributors to this volume.
Oen also wishes to extend her personal thanks to her friend, colleague, and great source of inspiration Unn Falkeid with whom it is always a great pleasure to work, discuss, and laugh! Above all, she is grateful to Stefano Fogelberg Rota, whose love, support, and friendship mean everything. The work on this book started when she was still a fellow at the Royal Academy of Letters, and it continued after she received funding from the Research Council of Norway for the international research project The Legacy of Birgitta of Sweden: Women, Politics, and Reform in Renaissance Italy —21 , of which she is the Principal Investigator.
She especially wishes to thank the core group of the research project: the PhD student Francesca Canepuccia, the postdoctoral fellow Eleonora Cappuccilli, the research assistant Victor Frans, and the dear friend and co-manager Anna Wainwright.
Finally, Falkeid wishes to extend her heartfelt thanks to Maria H. Oen for the friendship and joyful collaboration, both on this present book and on several other projects, including those belonging to the future! Introduction Maria H. And Birgitta, again like her younger contemporary, had been the charismatic leader of a group of followers comprising both women and men. At a time when women were strongly dissuaded from taking on public roles, not least when it came to instructing men in spiritual and political matters, the two stand out precisely because of their public personas.
Both traveled extensively as a part of their political interventions, and each was responsible for a substantial literary corpus containing explicit instructions for reform, addressing an audience consisting of popes, bishops, cardinals, royalties, monastics of all orders, and laypeople of all social strata. Oen and Unn Falkeid frequently been mentioned in conjunction with each other, historically and in more recent scholarship. Nonetheless, and with the exception of a few pioneering articles, there exist no attempts in modern research to investigate the two women and their literary legacies together in a comprehensive manner.
Birgitta Birgersdotter was born into the rural aristocracy of Sweden and was married to a nobleman at the age of Early in the decade, she and her husband went on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. After their return, the couple took a vow of chastity and decided to convert to a religious life, but shortly afterwards, Ulf died or ,8 and Birgitta was left a widow. She did not remarry or enter a monastery though, for a period, she kept close contact with the Cistercian house of Alvastra, and she may have lived in a house on the property of the monastery.
Instead, Birgitta assumed a public role and engaged herself in the current political debate, both in Sweden and abroad. Claiming that she was a visionary, instructed directly by God to be his medium on earth, Birgitta became the center of a group of followers that included theologians and religious men. Some of these men acted as her envoys, bringing her prophetic messages to the pope in Avignon and to the warring kings of France and England. During the latter half of the s, Birgitta began working on what would subsequently be collected and disseminated under the title Liber celestis revelacionum hereafter, Revelations in collaboration with Peter and probably also Master Mathias.
Together with her collaborators, Birgitta also traveled widely: she visited virtually all of the major shrines in Italy as well as the Holy Land, where she went on a pilgrimage in the last year of her life. Alfonso organized the revelations into books and chapters, a structure that the corpus still retains in succeeding printings as well as in the modern critical edition, and he ordered numerous copies from a scriptorium in Naples.
Oen and Unn Falkeid revelations that Alfonso initially excluded from the corpus but which Prior Peter Olofsson later introduced into the manuscripts. At the end of her life and after overcoming much opposition, Birgitta succeeded in establishing a monastic order. The first house was founded in Vadstena, Sweden establishment approved by the pope in , but the order soon spread all over Europe, beginning with Santa Maria del Paradiso outside of Florence At the age of seven, her hagiographer claims, she made a vow of chastity to Christ, and by the time she was a young adult, she was living an ascetic life in her home, practicing rigorous fasting and self-mortification.
The mantellate in Siena were affiliated with the local Dominicans and did charity work in the city. Around , Catherine formally joined the group, thus taking her religious life into the public realm. By , when Birgitta died, Catherine already had a reputation that reached beyond the walls of Siena, and she had begun articulating in letters her desire for spiritual reform.
While many scholars have assumed that she appeared there as a result of accusations of heresy, F. During this period, Catherine also became an even more ardent letter writer, addressing both church and civic leaders. Birgitta and the Anjou queen became acquainted during the period —67, when the Swedish visionary stayed in Naples. She petitioned the pope, and possibly also provided Alfonso with an artist and a scriptorium.
In a series of letters, Catherine sought to persuade the queen to return to Roman obedience. She was 33 years old then, whereas Birgitta had died at the age of Just as the supporters of so many other holy women, including Birgitta of Sweden, the famiglia of the Sienese author immediately began to campaign for her canonization. Both Raymond of Capua and Tommaso Caffarini composed hagiographical texts; however, they offered quite different images of Catherine, particularly in terms of her writing.
The texts of the two authors quickly found their ways into very different contexts, from private humanist libraries to monastic libraries; they were anthologized and placed side by side, sometimes with classical and contemporary political authors, and other times with devotional or theological texts.
To a certain degree, Birgitta and Catherine may be regarded as fountainheads for the extraordinary increase in both the number and status of female writers in early modern Europe; and the many commonalities between them invite investigations into the parallels. The range of scholars represented in this anthology offers an examination and comparison of the lives, networks, authorship, and the reception of these two women and their works.
Case studies from the fields of history, literature, philology, and art history provide the readers with critical and nuanced approaches to the issues of how Birgitta and Catherine, either alone or through the help of powerful people, established their authority and sanctity in the fourteenth century and beyond. For the production of their texts, both Birgitta and Catherine depended on their confessors and followers, who acted as their scribes and editors.
Furthermore, in both cases, the saintly authors and their collaborators who were responsible for writing their vitae emphasized the passivity of the two women before God—presented as the true author of their words—thereby reducing Birgitta and Catherine to mere conduits of divine inspiration. The volume opens with a chapter by F. Thomas Luongo, in which he explores the question of what it means to think of Birgitta and Catherine as authors.
In Chapter 2, Jane Tylus focuses on pilgrimage, a major theme in the writings of both Birgitta and Catherine. Birgitta appears as the paragon, the over-achiever of the late medieval pellegrina. Catherine, on the other hand, often violently advocated against embarking on pilgrimages, viewing them as a distraction from the lives people should be leading. How, then, might these two concepts of pilgrimage be both recognized and addressed? Perhaps they are in conflict yet related, with one arguably dependent on the other.
Tylus tackles this question by examining the vital role of pilgrimages—as lived experiences and as symbolic registers—for both Birgitta and Catherine. In Chapter 3, Unn Falkeid explores the roles of two of the biblical Marys as models for Birgitta and Catherine in the construction of their images as powerful public agents. Using intertextual and comparative analyses, Falkeid demonstrates the manner in which Birgitta and Catherine contested the contemporary politics of the Avignon papacy, grounding their authority in the Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene, respectively.
The Virgin Mary offered Birgitta, and other medieval religious women, a role model as both mother and bride of Christ. But Birgitta adopted the persona of the Virgin in a particular manner: in several of her revelations, Birgitta casts Mary as the foundation of her own auctoritas, in political as well as in religious matters.
Crusading, a principal theme in the writings of both Birgitta and Catherine, is the subject of Chapter 4, by Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski. Proceeding from an exploration of the theoretical and political contexts in which the two women wrote, Blumenfeld-Kosinski carefully analyzes their respective ideas, aims, and concrete strategies regarding the topic of holy war. In Chapter 6, Maria H. Images found in the earliest extant codices portray Birgitta in the act of writing—an extremely uncommon visual rendering of a female author in the medieval period—whereas Catherine is never depicted with a pen in her hand.
This difference emerges as a paradox when contrasted with representations of the two women in their respective texts, where Birgitta is often put forward as a passive medium while Catherine explicitly is delineated as a writer with agency. The tension between texts and images serves as the point of departure for scrutinizing the role of the visual in shaping the authority of their works as well as notions of Birgitta and Catherine as authors in a time when female literary authority was still controversial.
Using the concepts of sanctity and authority as analytical tools, in Chapter 7 Roger Andersson compares the similarities and differences between Catherine and Birgitta and their literary legacy in late medieval sermons. A comparison of the presentation of Birgitta and Catherine and their respective works in surviving sermons reveals that the clerical reception and use of these writings served diverging purposes; preachers promoted the canonization of Catherine, but not that of Birgitta.
Interestingly, these quotations serve the function of theological auctoritas on par with Scripture. Klaniczay demonstrates that the respective hagiographical sources offer two very different attitudes toward corporeal expressions of sanctity. Contrary to most holy women of the time, including Catherine, whose stigmatization is a common theme in her legends, the hagiographical image of Birgitta relies little on bodily attributes of holiness and imitatio Christi, and when such phenomena are encountered, it is more fitting to describe them as acts of imitatio Mariae.
Based on an assiduous study of unpublished sources, Rouxpetel maps the wider Observant network within which Alfonso played a key role and, through him, the influence of the two female reformers on the movement. Jeffrey F. Daniel E. Bornstein, trans. Margery J. Oen Leiden: Brill, Studies devoted to Birgitta of Sweden are too numerous to be listed here.
The reader is instead referred to the Bibliography of the Brill Companion. Marguerite Tjader Harris, trans. Vie et passions Paris: Cerf, Scholarship on Catherine is continuously collected in bibliographies published by Edizioni Cateriniani and more recently by Centro Internazionale di Studi Cateriniani. Birgitta had herself met Gregory XI in Montefiascone when he was still a cardinal, and she had, for a time, been living in a residence in Rome, provided to her by Cardinal Hugues Roger de Beaufort, a nephew of the pontiff.
VII: See n. Letters T and T Letter 4 August , quoted from Noffke, Letters, 1: The letters are T, T, T, and T Letter T implies that there were several more letters, which are now lost. Letter T, English translation from Noffke, Letters, 4: 8. Noffke, Letters, 4: 5 and Giuliana Cavallini Rome: Edizioni Cateriniane, Thomas Luongo The writings we possess of Birgitta of Sweden and Catherine of Siena— like the writings of virtually all female spiritual authors from the Middle Ages—come to use through the mediation of the communities of confessors, advisors, and followers who served as their scribes and editors, and on whom both women depended for the production of their texts.
Even more important, the Liber celestis revelacionum consists at least for the most part of collections made by her confessors and followers of individual visions issued on separate occasions, rather than a work composed as such by Birgitta; Birgitta did not set out to author her books of Revelations.
At the same time, Catherine, too, depended on the followers who served as her scribes for production of her letters and book, which to a very large extent were composed in collaboration with them. There remain many questions of what this mediation might mean to our understanding of Birgitta and Catherine as writers.
It is important to recall that the use of scribes in literary composition had a range of symbolic associations in the Middle Ages. A more complicated understanding of the possible meanings of scribal mediation and agency is evident, for instance, in the authorial iconography of Birgitta and Catherine examined in Maria H. Oen has shown that, while Birgitta is represented in the act of writing and Catherine is never similarly shown with a pen or, for that matter, in the act of reading , both iconographic choices represent complicated arguments for their authority as authors that depend on other aspects of their personae as saints and religious figures.
For example, in the historiated initial for his treatise, the Epistola solitarii ad reges, Alfonso is pictured not as the author of the text but as a mere connection in the chain between Christ and Birgitta, and the public to which the treatise is addressed Figure 1. Thomas Luongo Figure 1. Pierpont Morgan — in Figure 1. These images should alert us to how inadequate our assumptions might be to the situations of Birgitta and Catherine as writers.
For instance, while the images address scribal mediation in very different ways, they are all meant to present Birgitta and Catherine as authors of the texts they illustrate—a reminder of how complicated medieval ideas of authorship and authority were.
Birgitta Neither the form nor the content of the Liber celestis revelacionum was produced solely by Birgitta or entirely under her control. As mentioned already, the texts contained in the books of the Liber celestis revelacionum were not composed as part of a coherent work but as individual revelations, sometimes in the form of letters, directed to their intended recipients. Whereas it seems likely as Morris has concluded 11 that Birgitta dictated her revelations to scribes more often than she put pen to paper, the Vita produced by several of her clerical circle shortly after her death, perhaps to minimize the interventions of her scribes and editors, insists that her normal practice was to serve as her own scribe.
On the other hand, her words had to be hers, at least so that they would not seem to be the creation of her scribes and clerical supporters. But many aspects of her authorial process and the nature of her collaboration with her confessors remain obscure. The overall theme of the book is the nature of revelation itself, how and why God communicates to humans through images and metaphors—a feature of revelation to which the monk objects strenuously.
It is also not clear whether or to what extent Birgitta herself played a role, in collaboration with her confessors, in the creation of the eventual books of Revelations. To what extent or at what point did Birgitta— or her confessors, for that matter—conceive of her Revelations as an eventual collected work?
On this question, the example of the Liber questionum is again central. Thomas Luongo Sweden for Rome. A later date of composition or completion would change dramatically the way the book reads, making it a retrospective justification and explanation of her career after Sweden. That these questions have not been sufficiently raised in the Birgittine scholarship is perhaps evidence of the success of Alfonso and others in representing the texts as the result of spontaneous inspiration rather than authorial deliberation and revision, and their success in linking Birgitta as author of the Revelations in the form they gave it in the s.
This is Revelation 49 in the Revelaciones extravagantes, a series of revelations apparently collected and preserved by Alfonso but not included by him in the canonical Liber celestis revelacionum. My friends edited and arranged them in books, coloring and adorning them according to the grace given them.
Christ explains that, like the Evangelists and Doctors of the Church, Birgitta must think over what has been revealed to her from God, work out its meaning, and devise the best ways to express it: Your own heart is not always capable and enough on fire to express in writing the things you experience [sentis]. In a similar way my Spirit used to ascend and descend on the evangelists and doctors of the Church.
At certain times they would set down some things that had to be corrected, at other times things that had to be revised later, at still other times they were examined and reprimanded by others. Yet others came later who pondered their words more thoroughly and explained them more clearly. It seems likely that the attention drawn here to Alfonso is what led him to omit the revelation from the Liber celestis revelacionum. Scholarship on these issues has lagged for many years, in part due to the lack of a complete critical edition of her writings.
Thomas Luongo texts. In this particularly long letter, Catherine recounts how she turned to God from an experience of great bitterness amaritudine , obviously connected to her frustrations with Italian and ecclesiastical politics, to an experience of union with God in which she received from Him responses to four petitions she had made.
As has long been understood, this experience, and these petitions, formed the basis for her book, her Libro, which it is clear she began at this time: the letter is, in effect, a first draft or prolegomena of the book. In a breathless postscript—the translation here maintains the somewhat scattered syntax of the original—Catherine announces to Raymond that God has given her the ability to write and that she has written this letter, and another she sent him, in her own hand: This letter, and another I have sent you, I wrote in my own hand in the Isola della Rocca, with many sighs and an abundance of tears, so much so that the eye, seeing, could not see.
Not wishing to take me yet from this shadowy life, in a marvelous way he fixed it in my mind, just as the master does to the pupil, when he gives him an exemplar. Whence, immediately he parted from me, with the glorious Evangelist and Thomas Aquinas, thus sleeping I began to learn. Pardon me for writing too much, for the hands and the tongue are in accordance with the heart.
As to the character of this new identity and how her postscript works to create it, there is much more to be said. As I have argued at greater length elsewhere, it is very likely that the writing of letters, a kind of labor closely associated with that bitterness, was by this point in her career closely associated with her scribes and the formal and efficient semi-chancery that had developed to produce her letters.
In composing her book, on the other hand, Catherine was in a sense alone with God, and this form of writing was, as she makes clear, a source of refreshment and spiritual consolation. But no autograph document of hers survives, and neither Raymond of Capua in his authoritative Legenda maior of Catherine nor any of her other followers—including some, like Stefano di Corrado Maconi, who served frequently as her scribes—mention that she could write.
What she describes as waking up with newfound understanding or competence after intense study is not an experience all that unfamiliar to anyone who has struggled to learn something new or difficult. Catherine became more dependent on them and on the dictation minutes and registers of her letters that they apparently kept.
Thomas Luongo in content, save for the opening and closing protocols, a sign that Catherine and her scribes were working with and from base texts that existed in registers of some kind. And, of course, we know that many, perhaps most, of her letters survived because copies were kept by her scribes and not because they were copied from gatherings of the fair copies sent to recipients.
Her followers almost never mention the Libro without stating that it was dictated in a state of ecstasy, but even if we set those comments aside as hagiographical exaggeration, it seems very unlikely that Catherine wrote out, rather than dictated, a lengthy work like the Libro.
One presumes that there were at least two stages in the production of any letter by Catherine. All of her followers describe her dictating the contents of her letters to one or more of her scribes. The scribes who recorded her dictation did so probably in the form of minutes or notes.
It is very unlikely that any scribe took dictation directly into the fair copy—the final copy—of the letter. Those minutes or notes were probably then checked—very possibly by Catherine herself; as Lino Leonardi has noted recently, the fact that Catherine could read in the vernacular means that she could, and very likely did, participate in the reviewing and correcting of her letters.
Catherine could have meant here that she wrote out the fair copy of the letter sent to Raymond and added the postscript—as indeed her scribes sometimes added postscripts to her letters in order to salute other members of her famiglia. But this is perhaps the least likely meaning. After all, it is Caffarini—and not Catherine—who claims that her learning to write was a miracle, thereby implying she was transformed miraculously from an illiterate to an accomplished scribe who could write out a presentable fair copy of a letter.
A more likely possibility is either that she wrote only the postscript, on the back of the fair copy of the letter, or that she wrote some version of the letter in the form of notes, on a wax tablet or a piece of scrap paper or in one of the registers kept by her scribes for that purpose, and one of her scribes wrote the final, fair copy.
That Catherine read and worked with the registers of her letters is implied very strongly by the repetition of content between one letter and another. So, when Catherine says that she wrote this letter in her own hand, she could have meant that she wrote out some version of the text in a rough copy, probably in one of the registers in which her scribes recorded her dictation. And as for the fact that her close followers and scribes—those who, unlike Caffarini, were with her on a daily basis and present as she composed her texts—do not mention her writing, the simple explanation might be that they did not think this activity worth mentioning, compared, for instance, to her dictation while in ecstasy.
That she had the ability to write in this way was neither miraculous nor even surprising. And as has already been suggested, the announcement also involved identifying herself as a writer subjectively distinct from her scribes and signifying a change in her vocation as an author. But her announcement did not mean that she had become a solitary agent in the composition of her texts.
Thomas Luongo do with them what seems to you best for the honor of God. Catherine was not so much making Raymond and the others her literary executors as she was authorizing them to continue in their roles as collaborators with her by serving as her editors, responsible for making her writings into a complete and final work.
Conclusion It is clear that in order to assess the texts of Birgitta and Catherine, we have to abandon the idea of univocal authorial agency. But divine inspiration and the contributions of scribes and editors should be seen not as problems to be overcome or explained but, instead, as key elements of their practice and identities as writers.
Any evaluation of their identities of writers has to take account of their relationships with their scribes and editors, who along with God constituted their textual communities. It seems that Birgitta and Catherine were both leaving their scribes and editors texts that were to some extent unfinished. Indeed, as Christ suggests to Birgitta in Extravagantes 49, any writing about God is by its nature unfinished.
And in an unprecedented way, their followers made publication of manuscripts of their writings central to the campaigns for their canonizations: Birgitta and Catherine were promoted as authors at the same time as they were promoted as saints.
That Birgitta and Catherine were authors clearly mattered to the communities that participated in both the creation and the dissemination of their writings. As we have seen, both women were aware not only of their literary posterity but also of themselves as writing subjects in dialogue with God and in cooperation—and sometimes tension—with their scribes and editors.
It seems that the question of literary status is more a feature of scholarship on Catherine than scholarship on Birgitta. Perhaps this is because there is no Swedish parallel to the robust Italian fourteenth-century literary tradition—dominated by the tre corone Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio— from which Catherine can be excluded. Alfonso adapted the borrowings from earlier books by changing words and phrases to suit the theme of the new book.
VIII, pp. I and Rev. Birgitta and the Text of the Revelationes. See AP, And for Claire L. Si vero erat infirma, vocabat confessorem et scriptorem suum secretarium ad hoc specialiter deputatum, et tunc ipsa cum magna deuocione et timore Dei et aliquando cum lacrimis referebat ei verba illa in uulgari suo cum quadam attenta eleuacione mentali, quasi si legeret in libro, et tunc confessor dicebat illa verba in lingua latina illi scriptori, et ille scribebat illa ibidem in sua presencia, et postea cum erant verba conscripta, ipsa volebat illa ascultare et ascultabat valde diligenter et attente.
Oen Leiden: Brill, , 53— V, pp. But while this evidence suggests that the book was complete before Alfonso began his work on the Liber celestis, there is apparently no evidence of what form it existed before it reached Alfonso or, indeed, of when it was completed. Amici vero mei redegerunt ea in libros secundum graciam eis datam et colorauerunt et ornauerunt illa. Item dic eidem heremite, quod faciat et impleat officium euangeliste. Testi e concordanze, ed.
Giuliana Cavallini, Rome: Edizioni Cateriniane, ; 2nd edn. But her edition is not a true critical edition in that it does not take into account the full range of manuscripts and includes minimal textual commentary. But it is not clear that either of these claims is precisely correct. Caterina da Siena e il linguaggio della mistica. Le opere, vol. Siena, along with Florence, was under interdict at this time.
The image of Catherine working alongside her scribes with the registers and other drafts of her texts actually brings her more deeply into the writing process than does an image of Catherine writing solo. Indeed, it makes her a participant not only in the generation of the texts but also in their publication. Indeed, most of the words of this text that made her fully a writer are spoken by God and not by Catherine. For one thing, Birgitta was a pilgrim in its original Latin meaning: a stranger or foreign resident who did not have Roman citizenship.
Birgitta was indeed a foreigner in Rome, where she lived for over two decades. But the word has other resonances for the history of Christianity, beginning with the Church Fathers. I, Catherine too tended to pilgrims, at the Spedale di Santa Maria della Scala in Siena as well as at the Casa di Misericordia, to whose rector she addressed a number of letters. And like Birgitta, she lived in Rome, spending the last 18 months of her life there, when undoubtedly it would have been hard to ignore the many pilgrims crowding into the city.
Given that the immediate crisis demanded all of her attention, Catherine was not tempted to go out to visit the pilgrim sites nearby. Still, the extent to which the complex and multiple meanings of peregrinatio dominated their lives makes for an arguably powerful way for understanding the dynamics of female mysticism and action in the Trecento.
VII: 9. From the Old Testament apocrypha, Tobias offered a reassuring prototype for medieval pilgrimage. What does Birgitta gain on her journey to Jerusalem, and what does she bring back? And perhaps most urgently, why does she go at all? The increasing focus on pilgrimage in the final third of the Revelations, beginning with the close of Book V, connects the holy places to which Birgitta would travel as a peregrina—Assisi, Naples, Gargano, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem—and the status of revelation itself.
V: rev. VII: 4. They have ears and will not hear. As scholars have commented, there is narrative justice in the fact that prior to her trip to Jerusalem, Birgitta sees—and touches—St. In Jerusalem and Bethlehem, Birgitta will personally see and hear the birth and death scenes of Christ at the original locations…The Holy Land experiences will be for Birgitta comparable to St. They culminate in the reliving of a climactic moment in Christian history in a way that acknowledges that like Thomas, we are weak and need to see in order to believe.
The suddenness, moreover, with which Birgitta arrives at the holy sites—she omits all pedestrian information regarding the journey itself—only enhances the immediacy of their visual aspects. Christ, Mary, and the saints speak to her only in locations that are spiritually significant because they were already there.
IV: 4. Then you will regret having taken such rigorous discipline upon yourself. Then you will have a staff in your hand instead of a ring, a cloth on your head instead of a crown, and lowly sackcloth instead of a crimson gown. Or as we learn in Book VII Birgitta will discuss this purgatorial process in a much more compressed fashion in three crucial chapters from Rev.
The gain that Birgitta brings back is this: the more time she spends as a pilgrim on earth, the less time she will spend as a pilgrim in purgatory. Pilgrimage thus inhabits a bounded, alternate time and space, a temporary heightening of the Christian sensibility to the necessity of living life as a stranger that for the layperson could be too easily obscured in the course of the everyday.
Birgitta returns not with relics but with the Revelations, a more valuable testimony to her journey than a palm or a shell, insofar as it will awaken in its audience their own desire for such travels. Some of these souvenirs appear on a small panel painted several decades before Catherine of Siena was born, by the great Sienese painter Duccio. And so to our second biblical passage. This is the moment Duccio decided to paint: one of the disciples extending his hand toward the gate in invitation even as Jesus seems to be going further.
But in the panel featuring the road to Emmaus, Duccio gives him the recognizable garb of the medieval pilgrim, with the souvenirs proclaiming that he has been to sacred sites. Duccio has drawn on the resonant word peregrinus, chosen by Jerome to translate the original Greek paroikos—literally, someone who is outside of his own home—in order to bring us into a scene of contemporary pilgrimage.
But you were referring to your very self with those words. Unlike the doubting Thomas, Mary Magdalene is forbidden the act of touch, while unlike both Thomas and the men outside Emmaus, she instantly recognizes and believes her Savior. Duccio, of course, knew he was dressing Jesus up as someone he was not.
On the most literal level, Jesus has not been to Santiago or Rome. How is Catherine positioning herself at this scene of unknowing, as Jesus purposefully estranges himself from these men by pretending to be a stranger? Jesus is a stranger, in the original Latin sense, in his very estrangement from sin.
And he is a pilgrim, in the medieval sense, insofar as he has been to the holiest place that there is, heaven itself, returning to tell of his journey. As a result, he is a genuine peregrinus to all that exists on earth. Such estrangement is fundamental to Catherine, for whom the true Christian is never at home. Christ tells her not to [Rev. VII: 16]. Trust what he tells you. He has a holy desire to go to the Holy Sepulcher and is on his way to the holy father to get that permission for himself and a few others, religious and layfolk.
I have written a letter to the holy father asking him, for love of that most sweet blood, to give us permission to offer our bodies for every sort of torment. Beg supreme eternal Truth…to grant this mercy to us and to you: for all of us as a splendid company to give our lives for him.
In these early letters, the terminus of this journey is the Jerusalem of the Muslims, while in later years, it becomes Rome, where all must come fight and die for the true pope, Urban VI. Catherine ultimately seeks the Augustinian city of God, not the city of man,42 and the endpoint of pilgrimage is death. Pilgrims pay attention to nothing but getting to their goal. After reminding him that his namesake, St. Anthony, did not hesitate to leave the desert when he was needed elsewhere, she elaborates, painstakingly.
It would seem that God is partial to locality and can be found only in the woods and not somewhere else in times of need. This is not to say that Birgitta did not see pilgrimage in metaphorical terms, nor that she overlooked the importance of the condition of estrangement. II: 3. II: But as we have seen, Birgitta valued the practice of pilgrimage for its capacity to transform a hypothetical condition of estrangement into something tangible, conferring a reward on those who enacted it and exacting from them the promise to tell others about it—as Birgitta would faithfully do.
Catherine mentions purgatory only four times in the Dialogue, and once in her letters. Her dismissal of its occupants as poor souls who foolishly wasted their time49 on earth is consonant with her view of her life as an ongoing march toward heaven in which one must never look back. In refusing to sanction an earthly narrative that might lead toward purification or healing, she holds instead to a conception of time as immediate and compressed.
Be assured that, whether you dwell here or elsewhere, a like recompense is in store for your good works with our Lord. In the house of self-knowledge, within ourselves. Only through self-knowledge, not travel or physical contact with the divine, does one learn to be a true Christian.
There are two interesting, though perhaps only apparent contradictions to this assessment. Her responses, that is, are initiated in her body and in the day-to-day, even as many of the no-doubt mundane details are now sadly gone, excised by her followers as they copied her hundreds of letters readying them for the canonization process.
Who knows what these details might have covered? Surely, more of what we see in the passages that do survive: goings-on in Siena, logistics for taking care of a sick relative or friend, requests to send messages to other disciples, and political jockeying of a kind to which we are accustomed in Birgitta. Perhaps such care could even be regarded as the very sign of such understanding. Yet, in fact, it is also grounded in the daily gestures of charity and cura that she so scrupulously observed in her life and, we can conjecture, in her letters.
No, I want to delight in the hunger they had while they were pilgrim travelers in this life, 54 a hunger they still have. I am begging Divine Goodness to let me see soon the redemption of his people. There I stay until close to the hour of Vespers. So my life is hanging by a hair! It seems not to be a modesty trope—Catherine was never modest— but an expression of genuine uncertainty.
Catherine is left clinging to St. Yet Birgitta understood the importance of pilgrimage as an experience that could offer a pale foreshadowing of heaven and hence what one might expect in the afterlife: the immediacy of seeing Christ born in a stable and hearing him cry. Pilgrimage provided a necessary encouragement in a world populated by Christians not at all like the inimitable Catherine.
Like the tale of Tobias, it had a happy ending, and like the tale of Tobias, it recognizes that humans are weak, needing the guidance of an angel or the reassurance of the risen Christ. IV: 7. In this light, pilgrimage and the purgatorial journey alike are concessions to the radical imperfection of the human condition—as Catherine seems to have been aware.
As, of course, was Dante. Indeed, he too combines penitential and experiential practices in the Commedia, and specifically in Purgatorio, which depicts the voyage through this section of the afterlife as a pilgrimage through the use of similes in which he is compared to a pilgrim heading toward Jerusalem. Ventoux, Familiares 4. Just as Petrarch is skeptical as to what he might learn by traveling elsewhere, so does Catherine demonstrate considerable skepticism regarding changes of place for spiritual reasons, particularly those that interfered with her most important work and the work she wanted slackers like Antonio da Nizza to take on.
And yet, Caterina and Birgitta are alike in at least one thing: their dying requests that their survivors gather their words together and do with them what they would. VI: VII: 1. Birgitta of Sweden, The Revelations of St. In his translation of the pseudo-Pauline letter to the Hebrews, Jerome uses peregrini to refer to Abraham and his followers, who become alienas as well in Hebrews Berkeley: University of California Press, , ch.
Catherine was hardly alone in discouraging a monk from traveling to a pilgrimage site. The editor notes that the same phrase is quoted in The Life of Blessed Birgitta, from the same edition, Thomas, the doubter of the risen Christ, wanted to be given tangible evidence, just as St. Birgitta received a true relic in her own hands. Donald W. Jerome, trans.
Most of the comments in these pages are based on Rev. VI: 10, which informs the living how to get their loved ones out of purgatory more quickly. The indulgence was technically a relaxation of a certain amount of the penance that a person had incurred by sinning, and was granted on specified condition.
Here, however, Christ grants Birgitta and her party a full, or plenary, indulgence as potent as the sacrament of baptism. Giuliana Cavallini Siena: Cantagalli, , n. Noffke, Letters, 1: See also Chapter 4 by Blumenfeld-Kosinski in the present volume. Su, carissimi figliuoli! Wright Letter, Nella casa del cognoscimento di noi. In noi troviamo questo dolce e amoroso fuoco.
I am grateful for her thoughtful reflections and have learned a great deal from our conversations about this work. Allen Mandelbaum New York: Bantam, Allen Mandelbaum. IV: The year had been proclaimed a Holy Jubilee, a year of special grace for the pilgrims who visited Rome and its basilicas, and the Swedish principessa and her companions had joined the pilgrims flocking to the city.
Then, one day during her visit to Santa Maria Maggiore, she received a vision in which the Virgin Mary appeared to her, complained that the basilica was about to collapse, and commanded Birgitta to inform the prelate about the terrible state of not only the structure in which they stood but also the whole of the Catholic Church: I would have him [the prelate] know that the foundation of the Holy Church is so heavily deteriorated on its right side that its vaulted roof has many cracks at the top, and that this causes the stones to fall so dangerously that many of those who pass beneath it lose their lives.
Several of the columns that should be standing erect are almost level with the ground, and even the floor is so full of holes that blind people entering there take dangerous falls. Sometimes it even happens that, along with the blind, people with good eyesight have bad falls because of dangerous holes in the floor.
Because of all this, the church of God is tottering dangerously. The result of this will shortly be seen. I assure you that she will suffer a downfall if she does not receive the help of repairs. And her downfall will be so great that it will be heard throughout all of Christendom. All this is to be taken in a spiritual sense. The church is adorned with mosaics depicting the idea of Rome as the center of the Christian world and Mary as the savior of the Roman people Salus Populi Romani.
The mosaics of the triumphal arch and the nave configure Mary as goddess, empress, and Mother of God combined. In a letter dated , Catherine of Siena writes the following to one of her mantellate, Monna Agnese Malavolti, who was a widow belonging to one of the prominent families of Siena: Oh sweetest virgin, how well you imitated that devoted disciple Magdalen!
See, dearest daughters, how Magdalen knew herself, and humbled herself. And speaking of showing him love, we surely see it at the holy cross. No, like a passionate lover she ran and embraced the cross. Indeed, in order to see her Master she was bathed in blood. Surely you were drunk in blood, oh Magdalen! As a sign that she was drunk with love for her Master, she showed it in her actions toward his creatures, when after his holy resurrection she preached in the city of Marseilles.
As the papacy consolidated its power, the institutional bureaucracy became bloated. Moreover, the papal court enriched itself through taxation and a broad reorganization of the financial system. The city of Rome quickly declined, politically and economically. Avignon, on the other hand, developed into a cosmopolitan center, with the papal curia as the richest, most lavish and powerful court in Europe. The opposition was manifold, and it came from every corner of Europe, including political theorists, early humanists, and the growing groups of educated people in European cities who often supported their secular rulers.
Two of the most remarkable voices in this expansive choir of critics were those of Birgitta and Catherine. Both were deeply engaged in the contemporary reform movements and managed to make their voices heard despite strong opposition. How did they manage to raise their voices against mighty institutions and powerful figures at a period in time when women were excluded not only from the universities and church hierarchies but also from the very act of preaching in public?
The impressive networks of powerful contacts they created extended to Italy and other parts of Europe. Indeed, he strongly condemned the authority of female writers, a judgment which damaged the political and intellectual reputations of both Birgitta and Catherine. This intensified focus on the Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalen was something that Birgitta and Catherine knew how to exploit.
In addition to the Revelations, we have the prayers in praise of Mary attributed to Birgitta and, above all, the liturgical readings Sermo angelicus de Virginis excellentia, which locate Mary at the heart of the Birgittine Order Order of the Most Holy Savior , to which I will soon return.
In the vision, a lady in shining garments came to the puella, the little girl, while she was in her bed. When the young Birgitta rises from her bed, the lady places a crown on her head. In this period, she received two revelations of great significance. In the revelation from Alvastra Rev. As Claire L. A cluster of eight visions gathered in the sixth book of the Revelations Rev.
VI: 55—62 , all dating from the s, reiterates the biography of the Virgin, from her conception to her assumption. VII: 15 and of the Nativity Rev. Here, we meet the idea of the immaculate conception Rev. VI: 55 , which she shared with the contemporary Franciscans. Another aspect of the Birgittine Mariology exposed in this small hagiography centers on the assumption of the Virgin.
In a highly interesting vision, Mary denies that St. Jerome had expressed doubts about the assumption of the Virgin in his work, that should be taken as a sign of his humble belief rather than denial of a revealed truth. According to Birgitta, history is a process of continuous revelation in which the truth slowly unfolds. Offering herself as a tool in this process, she lays claim to the truth that was still hidden in the time of St. The identity of the schoolmaster to whom she refers is unclear.
It was widely read every day in the divine offices of every Birgittine monastery throughout Europe. In this way, it encouraged the sisters, in a rhythmical and insisting manner, to locate Mary at the center of their worship. For that reason, it is important to look closely at how Mary is configured in the text. As Anders Piltz has described it, Sermo angelicus is the most remarkable contribution to the Mariology ever made by a Scandinavian.
The text consists of 21 lessons, 3 for each day of the week. Each of these lessons contemplates, as the full title makes clear, the worth or excellence of the Virgin Mary. He composed the accompanying musical arrangements as well. The entire work, which came to constitute the content of the Birgittine office, was given the title Cantus sororum The Song of the Sisters. However, our focus here will be the lessons, the Sermo angelicus, authored by Birgitta herself.
As already noted, the lessons are spread out over the week—three for each day—and what they reflect is the history of salvation, with Mary as the true stepping stone between transitory and eternal life. Stylistically, they can be described as solemn and far more elevated than the Revelations.
In them, we read about how Mary was eternally present in Divine thought and how she received the matter of her blessed body from the four elements of the world Sunday, first reading. Mary brought joy to a world of tears Sunday, second reading. She is the most excellent of all creatures closer to God than the angels Monday, first reading. She is the microcosmos minor mundus who will remain while the rest of the world will perish Monday, second reading. The Sermo angelicus concludes with the Saturday readings, which amount to fireworks celebrating the unreserved sublimity of Mary.
And as Birgitta demonstrates, Mary is the final realization—indeed, the aim of this plan. Memento Mariae! In the two last readings of the Saturday lesson, the Queen of Heaven is celebrated in a manner similar to how the empress is configured in the mosaics of Santa Maria Maggiore.
Of great interest here are the circumstances connected to the composition of the Sermo angelicus. Alfonso describes it as follows: Now Blessed Birgitta had a room with a window facing the high altar from which she could see the body of Christ every day. Every day in that room, as soon as she had read her hours and her prayers, she made herself ready with a notebook and pen in hand, ready and waiting for the angel of the Lord.
When he came, he would place himself at her side with an upright, courteous stance, reverently facing the altar where the body of Christ lay concealed. Sitting in this posture, and with the Eucharist in mind, she is visited by an angel of the Lord, whose arrival recalls the visitation of Mary by the angel Gabriel.
She is the hub around which the universe rotates. She is the tree of life in the middle of the Garden of Eden, the powerful and indomitable plant that grows out of the old and perishable world, offering her life-saving fruit, the body of Christ, to humanity. Mary is, in other words, redemptrix, the co-redeemer, and must be remembered and celebrated as such. Birgitta draws heavily, of course, from theological and popular traditions. Here, we have the legacy of Bernard of Clairvaux, conveyed by the Cistercian brothers from Alvastra, who surrounded her also in Rome.
Moreover, she knew the pseudo-Bonaventurian Meditationes vite Christi, in which Mary plays a crucial role. Above all, we can recognize the influence of the Legenda aurea Golden Legend , by Jacobus de Voragine — This work achieved enormous popularity in the fourteenth century, and it was translated into several European vernaculars. Birgitta herself is said to have read from it to her servants from the Swedish translation Old Swedish Legendary every day after breakfast.
However, no one had previously placed herself so prominently in direct dialogue with Mary as Birgitta did, and the effect was remarkable. Indeed, Birgitta could not find a better ally than the Queen of Heaven in conveying her political ideas. No matter how tough her messages may have been, it would have amounted to a profound sacrilege to reject them as they were received directly from her divine mother-in-law.
Indeed, the hagiographic sources emphasize the close connection between Catherine and the Magdalen. Then there was Sandy Warner, black-haired model who posed for Martin Denny covers. All that stuff, nothing compared to what you see now, what your dollar can buy, and even then, way before then, you had the smokers with their Joan Crawford clones sucking on some guy s woody woodpecker, but in their time they were hot, those valleys of lust.
The woman stared into the darkness of the stalls and Les felt as if his mind had been split open, probed with a rubber glove, scooped out. His power gone, he faded from sight. Was this true? I never find his name on Lassie credits. Too late to enquire in person. For Baxter the audio world was an environment in which a season might be suspended indefinitely. Throughout the s he offered package tours in sound, running excursions for sedentary tourists who wanted to stroll around some taboo urges before lunch, view a pagan ceremony through gaps in the bamboo, go wild in the sun or conjure a demon, all without leaving home stereo comforts in the whitebread suburbs.
By contrast, the music itself was innocent, innocuous, touristic, at times mediocre. But Baxter had strange, inventive ideas that could lift risible arrangements and melodic schlock into a realm of warm leatherette enchantment. Of all the American exotica musicians who recorded during the fifties and early sixties - Martin Denny, Arthur Lyman, Esquivel, Yma Sumac the Inca princess, Eden Ahbez, Korla Pandit the tur- baned organist, Elisabeth Waldo and a host of one-shot bandwagon jumpers - Baxter was the most sophisticated in his fabrications.
The surface of the music still sounds ornate, shimmering. Listen to Baxter as background music, a prospect he abhorred, and his work can sound cheap and superficial. Listen with more attention and the emotion of the music, a deep longing for the sensuous, fabulous, even mythical, is entrapped, as a ghost in a web, within the details of sound.
As is the case with many musicians whose commercial instincts do daily battle with an innocent need to be regarded as serious, his work was a crucible for unique skills, fabulous inventions and chronic lapses of judgement. Baxter synthesised many exoticas rich in their own troubled histories — Afro-Cuban, Polynesian, South-East Asian, Japanese and Chinese, African, Brazilian, Central and South American, Caribbean - channelling them through a typically cool-school jazz schizophrenia of exquisitely sensitive textural detail undermined or flattened by brashness.
The synthesis culminated in a fabricated exotica without boundaries or sovereignty, a place where hybridisation met its final destiny as pure fantasy. Yet there were times when Baxter could be enchanting, spellbinding, truly magical. Noise for the machine age mixed with echoes of magical rites and ancient court ceremonies.
The newly invented jazz drum kit took its place alongside ritual drums of Cuba, Africa, Haiti and Brazil, shakers and rattles of Central and South America, scrapers from Mexico, gongs from Burma, woodblocks from China, bells from Japan, xylophones and marimbas from Africa, tuned percussion from Bali and Java. Fischer in Writing Culture. There was one exception, at least, and that was the bandleader from Saturn, Sun Ra, living in his own sun belt in Chicago. According to Ra biographer John F.
Somebody at Capitol told me - it was very surprising - he said this Music Out of the Moon , which was theremin and choir - it had a little jazzy feel in a couple of places - he said this is selling in South- Central LA. So anyway we could never figure anything out.
Turn down the lights, relax in an easy chair and listen. Then, for a few stolen hours, perhaps you will warm to happy memories and blissful hopes: Yours, for as long as you may hold it, will be peace of mind. Though there were some small similarities in their aims and methods, the real world in which they lived and worked divided them so totally, they may as well have been creatures from two different planets.
While Sun Ra was defining a New World Afrocentric identity, Baxter confirmed the imperialist fantasies of the old world, now indulged in tourist escapades as well as military expeditions. Ultimately, Baxter was a professional in Hollywood. Back in the days when celluloid sex and horror were still soft core, titillation and unfulfilled promises were an accepted element in the selling of forbidden pleasures. Baxter was born in Mexia, Texas, in Trained as a concert pianist, he moved on to tenor saxophone, performing in LA clubs in the forties.
Characterised by their contrast of a single instrument - piano and Spanish guitar respectively - against a vortex of strings, they established Cole as a balladeer. It was the young arranger, Nelson Riddle, however, who was declared the discovery of these sessions. This is music in suspension, where drowning is only a sensual slumber. Like other film composers, such as John Barry or Ennio Morricone, the attraction of such sensual depths of sound - in this case electronic keyboards and organ, samba rhythms and shimmering percussive effects - outweighs any populist urges to tether listeners in the shallows of melody.
The show is live with the emphasis on the sound of music, featuring new arrangements of some of the current songs and some of your old favourites. Our seductive ladies will be the violins. This unkind cut was not absolutely true. In Soundtrack magazine, Baxter reminisced about a trip to Mexico. Some including Baxter himself have said he was an ethnomusicologist, he had studied Balinese gamelan and Chinese music, travelled to Cuba and heard ritual drums.
How completely irrelevant. To justify his music with bogus scientism undermines Baxter as a fabulist. In fact, Baxter was in on this joke himself. It just came out of nowhere. Later on I went to Cuba I heard carnival in Rio too. As the name suggests, hi-fi promised the cinematic authenticity of being there, in imaginary and acoustic space.
The exotica composers shared an obsession with space. Juan Garcia Esquivel, a Mexican arranger and bandleader, explored the hallucinatory possibilities of stereo by recording sections of his orchestra in separate studios to achieve an exaggerated spatial image.
Through an intricate system of intercommunication by headphones, the musicians were able to hear each other and play together just as if they were all in the same room. The effects are startling, the arrangements are daring, and when an image moves from side to side it can literally be said that the motion is almost a block long! Throughout the tracks that follow, grand pianos drift from one side of the room to the other.
Crude as the sound magic is, the illusionism has parallels both with the Kinetic painting and sculpture of Bridget Riley and Pol Bury or with the surreal imagistic dislocations of Salvador Dali and Rene Magritte. Another strong presence echoing in Esquivel recordings is Spike Jones, percussionist, arranger and satirist bandleader of the City Slickers. Jones specialised in highly controlled chaos, interrupting romanticism or seriousness with rapid montages of idiocy and noise.
Trumpeter George Rock gives a flavour of the humour in Jordan R. He was always afraid he was going to miss his cue. Just a pair of trousers smoking a cigar. According to Jones, Stravinsky was wearing new patent leather shoes that squeaked every time he went up on his toes.
New percussive effects. I was hysterical. I was sitting real close and I could see and hear the shoes. When I left, driving home, I got to thinking if you made planned mistakes in musical arrangements and took the place of regular notes in well-known tunes with sound effects, there might be some fun in it. Alongside Apache and Pueblo instruments, the liner notes list a battery of pre-Columbian instruments - the omitzicahuastli or human bone rasp, the teponaxtle or sacred slit drum, deer hooves, obsidian stone and so on.
A two- LP set released on Folkways documented the individual sounds of eighty-nine pre-Columbian musical instruments, each played in isolation with traffic noise clearly audible in the background. Field recordings of Vietnamese Mnong Gar music, recorded in and , released by the French Ocora label in their Collection Musee de VHomme, were augmented by a performance on a litho- phone discovered in northern Vietnam. It would however be a pity if these stones with their beautiful sound were to remain silent forever In hindsight, one of the attractions of exotica from this period is our perception of its pivotal position between the immediate past and the possible future.
War in the Pacific had introduced a new set of cultural parameters to America. In the postwar period, suburbanisation and technology were suggesting a future that combined refuge with expansion. The innate surrealism of these records comes from the naive but very professional way in which they overlaid easy listening renditions of standard tunes with strange instrumentation, stereo effects and exotic backgrounds.
Travel was the coming thing, yet fear of the unknown, the other, still festered. The same desire to throw in a touch of highbrow coloration was transforming country music in roughly the same era, as hard drinking, rough- edged country was dragged out of the honkytonks and sweetened with strings and choirs.
Despite what one might expect, this does not proceed from the importation of something fairly genuine through a progressive watering-down. The early stages involve highly diluted Latinisms. The impulse to fabricate and exploit, whatever the source skimpy Baxter biographies and interviews give us few clues , led him into regions that challenged notions of authenticity. And he had. He was an ethnomusicologist.
He knew everything there was to know. Then a former stripper, a thirties legend named Sally Rand, came to hear the Balladeers play. Looking neutered in their pencil ties, transitional haircuts and matching jackets with no lapels, they are captured for posterity and their own embarrassment in a posed photograph now lodged in the Michael Ochs archives, three acoustic guitarists and a double bass player in the wrong place at the wrong time.
In I returned, having killed at least one myth: that of travel as a means of escape. I have subsequently gone back to therapy twice, once for only a brief amount of time. The chief thing I have learned from it is that, even in what appears to be the most heterogeneous manifestations, one always finds that one is oneself, that there is a unity in life, and that everything leads back, whatever one does, to a specific constellation of things which one tends to reproduce, under various forms, an unlimited number of times.
In , Baxter set sail for uncharted lands, scoring his first of many low-budget film soundtracks: a sailboat travelogue called Tanga Tika. The filmmaker is unknown. High Jungle , published in , is filled with heady descriptions of jungle atmospheres and sounds.
It falls through open and half-closed roofs, down three stories with musical obstacles at varying heights, landing at last on cement or water or hollow tiles in half-finished rooms, whose crazy angles provide unheard of acoustics. After a short period in Hollywood, Floyd teamed up with Robert Flaherty, a documentary filmmaker who had made Nanook of the North at the beginning of the twenties. Flaherty himself was an interesting case.
He accidentally set fire to the negative of his first documentary on Eskimo life, then lost the work print. For his next venture he was more careful not to smoke while editing. Often described as the first ethnographic documentary film, Nanook of the North was distributed to cinemas by Pathe. Flaherty was then commissioned to travel to Polynesia to film a South Seas sequel: Moana.
He is photographed in Samoa during this period, on one knee like a supplicant, his arm around a laughing child. The scene is idyllic, the South Seas as any fantasist might imagine them: lush vegetation, bright sun, bare-breasted women, bare-torsoed men, happy children, all adorned with flowers in their hair. With this in mind, Flaherty developed a specific method for constructing and reconstructing cultures on film.
White Shadows in the South Seas told the story of an alcoholic doctor who falls in love with a Tahitian woman, finally meeting his demise at the hands of white colonials. Murnau in a partnership. The first and only film to come out of the partnership with Flaherty was Tabu. Murnau bought Flaherty out of the deal and finished the film, though he never lived to see the premiere. The boy was at the wheel of the Packard when the fatal accident occurred.
The Hollywood mechantes langues reported that Murnau was going down on Garcia when the car leaped off the road. Captain James Cook introduced the word to Europe in , describing his third voyage around the world. He used the word in connection with religious practices in Atui, one of the Sandwich Islands, and Tahiti. After Cook was killed in Polynesia, his successor - James King - attempted to be more specific about the occasions and meanings of taboo. We also frequently saw several at their meals, who had the meat put into their mouths by others; and on our asking the reason of this singularity were told they were tabooed , or forbidden, to feed themselves This word is also used to express anything sacred, or eminent, or devoted.
It soon became the property of the educated, particularly in Britain where Cook was widely read: he was, after all, the last of the great navigators, the last person to sail around the globe in the grand manner and discover new and inhabited land; his writings showed him to be a man of genius and his death was an event of the mythical order.
It is a sylvan cabaret.. Campbell insisted were orchids, and classical statues and fountains with running water, everywhere, and spotlights with occult colors Then the two women come in, severely naked. They go to bed together and compromise themselves in some really unhealthy gymnastics, which are indecent and completely unhygienic. At the climax, the lights flash on and off and the couple becomes a single woman, screaming, because such cries are the most common form of expression in Cuba A photograph of the band onstage shows a conguero and clarinettist wearing fezzes, charming a string of sausages out of a basket.
Other band members, wearing turbans, clown around them, one of them waving a large fan of peacock feathers. A confused, hybrid exotica evolved as the century progressed. Although Baxter was careful to theme his territories and highlight individual cultural mysteries a different paradise, a different sales pitch for each album , the music layered dislocated fantasy on dislocated fantasy. Hobsbawm, The Age of Empire, With a disregard for specifics, exotic musics were delineating a false ethnographic map of the world, as if Sir James Frazer had written The Golden Bough as a dream text, even a deliberate deception.
More down to earth in his adoption of an exotic identity was the London-born Hawaiian guitarist Kealoha Life. These were people too ordinary for their own liking, reinventing themselves as characters in a parallel universe. The process had begun properly in the nineteenth century, at its sublime height with Joseph Conrad and Rudyard Kipling, at less demanding altitudes with the imperial literature of H.
Postwar, the references from stage, film and television were rich in disinformation: the Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, Dorothy Lamour series of Road films Road to Singapore, Road to Morocco, Road to Zanzibar, Road to Bali and so on , the exotic films featuring singer and wearer of exotic fruits. Later research on Carmen Miranda suggests that her notorious costume, the banana hat apparently so kitsch, so insultingly stereotypical , was an adaptation of the hats that Bahian fruit sellers balanced on their head.
Miranda first wore this seemingly bizarre, though actually practical, headgear for her Rio de Janeiro performance debut in Born in a small Portuguese village, she emigrated to Brazil as a child. Later, she collaborated with Brazilian samba composers such as Laurindo Almeida and Synval Silva, becoming a success by singing Argentinian tangos and Brazilian sambas. With her arrival in New York, she found her speech, accent and mannerisms turned into idiocies by the American media.
Men, of course, lusted after her exotic exuberance or, lusting after other men, they dressed in Carmen Miranda outfits. For this Americanisation, Miranda was rejected by her Brazilian fans. Locked into the studio system with Twentieth Century Fox, she was unable to escape the treadmill of escapist fun. Already demoralised by her unhappy marriage, Miranda was broken by the relentless pace of work.
Addiction to uppers and downers followed. Suffering acute anxiety and depression she finally made a temporary return to Brazil, where frequent electric shock treatment was administered, as was customary at the time in cases of nervous breakdown. She was forty-six years old. The tao moe family.. Terry Zwigov cant spell hs name made a great film about them but has never edited it for showing, ive seen bits of it.
Tao used to make super eight films of them.. His paintings of the people and buildings would certainly be accurate, but they would also look as if they had been seen through the eyes of a man whose roots went deep into American soil. As Rodgers was aware, his solution to the problem of depicting otherness to an audience hungry for stereotypes was informed by pre-modernist Orientalist painting.
The theatrical realism of nineteenth-century painters such as Hans Makart and Jean-Leon Gerome served to intensify the erotic voyeurism into which the observer is seduced. If any musical event of the fifties proves a connection between exotica and the Pacific campaigns of World War II, or better illustrates the notion of exotica as a painted backdrop for the important deeds and forbidden romances of white Americans, then it must be South Pacific.
Based on Tales of the South Pacific , a James Michener book of short stories about the Pacific war, the stage musical actually began its five-year Broadway run in The luridly photographed film followed in I would argue that they were truly sacred places, but in modern guise. Whereas sacred places in traditional culture seem to have been created ex nihilo, to have existed always, these new places can be seen in a process of creation, fulfilment and decline.
They offer a unique opportunity to follow the relationship between cultural imagination, physical landscape and the sense of the sacred. They are windows into the changing spiritual aspirations, the soul, of modern Europe. The island that may call at any time of night or day, come to me, come to me, like the summoning of death. By summoning a number of influential travellers, writers, artists, filmmakers and opinion shapers some of them to their death , the supposed paradise of Polynesia was imagined into a powerful sacred place, a totem of European, American and Japanese fantasy and nostalgia.
It was partly the restlessness which afflicts most sophisticated people when they try to live a simple life After a winter of freezing temperatures in New York State, Robert Louis Stevenson sailed to Polynesia and settled in Samoa for the sake of his failing health. Though Stevenson was happier and healthier in Samoa, paradise was not quite as indolent as he had imagined.
And all this forlorn valley of granite is also perfumed, as if it were an oriental temple. You could say that the air is ripe with benjamin, citronella, geranium, and myrrh The Marriage of Loti tells the story of his marriage to a fourteen-year-old Tahitian girl named Rarahu. A featherweight narrative is peppered with observations that seem repugnant now.
He seems to see her as a kind of animal-child, a creature of few qualities other than beauty and sweetness. He is indifferent to the fate of Rarahu after he has left Tahiti. A description of Chinese opera performed in San Francisco in reveals prejudice in the face of unfamiliarity. The actors, dressed in the costumes of departed dynasties, gave vent to the most astonishing and incredible yells in voices for all the world like cats in a gutter; the orchestra, consisting of gongs and banjos, performed in outrageous discord - or undreamed-of harmonies.
Paul Gauguin was inspired by The Marriage of Loti. While he may not have intended it, his books were a crucial part of the process of convincing the French people that their future lay as much in far distant places as it did in the farms and cities of France itself. And, yearning for an unspoiled Eden, the inhabitants of those overcrowded, smoky cities had no wish to be told that such a paradise did not exist — least of all a fantasist like Paul Gauguin, who read Loti and through him came to see in the colonial romance a solution to all his troubles, both financial and artistic.
Miami Beach, , a ferret on a lead Soho, New York City, , two ferrets on leads, walked by woman wearing fur coat According to David Sweetman, he was drawn compulsively to a Peruvian trepanned mummy from the Urubamba Valley. Specially built colonial villages - the villages indigenes - titillated urban Europeans with a simulacrum of life in a variety of exotic locales. At the Centenaire in Paris, he sketched Khmer sculptures and visited the Javanese village.
They were also a conduit for promotion, in a form that we would recognise only too quickly today. In anticipation of beer sponsorship for world music, the Javanese village was sponsored by Dutch businessmen, who offered Van Houten Cocoa and Lucas Bols Spirits to footsore, thirsty Parisians in one of the huts.
Sweetman speculates on another aspect of these human zoos: erotic desire projected onto the village inhabitants. Performances of dances, just the sort of spectacles that impressed themselves so deeply on Claude Debussy at the Exposition of or Antonin Artaud in , were given by a troupe of Javanese temple dancers, girls aged between twelve and sixteen.
The convergence of exotic culture, paedophilia and colonial produce, comparable commodities without conscience, is striking. Maybe even Gauguin found the Javanese girls out of bounds; he embarked on a short affair with a woman from the Caribbean.
All of the colonial exhibitions between the s and the Second World War, mounted on a grand scale and with huge popular appeal in Europe, America and many of the colonies, mixed a confusion of intentions. MacKenzie in his book, Propaganda and Empire. A thread of pragmatism hung off the showmanship. Links between the husbandry of exotic animals and displays of exotic culture are strong.
A polymath collector, Raffles attempted to make sense of the East with his shiploads of Hindu deities, Burmese figures, Javanese weapons and dance masks, dried plants, shells, rocks, insects, musical instruments and paintings. He even transported live animals. It is probably no accident that they were often accompanied by exotic human attendants who Thor Heyerdahl, Aku-Aku, bamboo On the west coast of the New World, fifty years into the twentieth century, words drummed out a percussive sound poetry of orientalist mystique, the incantations of strange gods, the rumble and hiss of Polynesian surf, the polyrhythms of clashing metal harmonics and gulping bamboo.
Saucers landed, food was faster, finned ultracars cruised the freeways, men traversed the ocean on balsa rafts, lived as fish. Down below, where dream and action move silently forward through the dense waters, side by side, man feels for a moment in tune with life Other Baxter covers revealed the sexual fantasies of the American fifties, oceanic, primitivist, taboo. He appears to simultaneously entreat and ravish a Latin beauty, Jane Russell in essence, who tosses her head, parts her lips and averts her eyes in protest, rapture and erotic agony.
One hand pushes away, the other pulls forward. One half of her body is washed in light; the other half shrouded in darkness. These lovers, or fighters, merge into the bush, framed and dominated by a crudely sketched museum tableau of carvings and masks, an approximation of tourist pieces from Central Africa. The setting could capture a moment of passion during a ballroom dance contest, Latin section, held in the Disney Museum of Fetish and Ancestral Worship.
Psychoanalysis provided a scientific explanation of the horrific creations of the subconscious without diminishing their menace. It assured them complete psychic reality. Drowning in shadow, oppressed by the camera, trapped against a red background, this woman could be the threatening, threatened female of film noir, the screamingly distressed damsel of fifties creature-features or a TV soap housewife whose husband has elected to wash the dishes.
The raw realism of these vocal effects is truly startling. Though softened in the selling by a gimmicky dramatic theme and a pitch at hi-fi buffs, she anticipates the niche allowed for or taken by experimentally inclined female vocalists such as Patti Waters, Yoko Ono and Diamanda Galas. Judging by later comments made by Sumac and Baxter, the Xtabay sessions must have been a war of the egos. And he always had arthritis when it came time to play the guitar.
He had no ability whatever, in anything. Nothing musical can be traced to South America, despite the vivid sleeve-note descriptions of Incan hymns, Andean mountain grandeur, Peruvian monkey calls and Aztec princes. This dubious legend was matched by counterclaims that she was Amy Camus from Brooklyn. Now there seems agreement that she was born in Lima, Peru, either in or , recorded in Argentina with Moises Vivanco in the Inca Taqui Trio, then moved to the United States in But she was South American, plus Inca, you know, mestizo.
I thought I was going to die right then. But she was a marvellous talent. Sixties soul man Joe Hinton and the late Minnie Riperton were notable for acrobatic ballad renditions that hovered on the edge of self-parody, but for Sumac, working in a fabricated soundworld, her elastic range, power and purity of tone conjured startling images, as garish and hot as the early twentieth-century primitivism of painters such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner or Franz Marc, their exotic, sexualised figures stage-set in front of torrid backgrounds.
The ambiguous nature of her South American ancestry, hyped by Los Angeles publicists to a credulous audience, reinforces the musical effect. And then Les did something that was even more puzzling. Sensitive and in poor health, Ravel surrounded himself with plants and sculptures, a Japanese garden, mechanical birds and music boxes, Japanese prints, an enclosure for the dreamworld that sound could conjure. The Voice of the Xtabay is so clearly odd, a kitsch eccentricity that nevertheless endures through its originality, that the question of authenticity refuses to be heard.
The music depicts a mystery that archaeology and other sciences of disinterment can only spoil. He can only experience it as a mystery so that all obscurities, however much he suffers from them, serve to enhance the magic power of his vision. An identification with the primitive world would revoke its ideality and destroy rather than fulfil his dream; and his art would lose its actual source of energy.
In the most popular instances it is a single untexted vocalization or falsetto yodel, often hunting cries rather than songs or musical pieces. This is the sonic cartoon of the diminutive person, the simple, intuitively vocal and essentially non-linguistic child. Why, in the face of such a varied and complex corpus of musical practices, does global pygmy pop reproduce the most caricatured image of its origin? It was before we had all the buttons we have now.
So we could edit. Watched by a pipe-smoking white adventurer, who explains to female interest that the hymn they are hearing was once sung before virgins were taken by the Sun God, Sumac grasps her moment. In , this Norwegian explorer sailed across the Pacific Ocean on a Peruvian balsawood raft that he named after the sun-god.
Sumac undertook a minor migration sideways with her Legend of the Jivaro album. As Michael J. The cruelest [sic] woman in all Africa! Writing about H. North America and Europe were indeed avid for blood-and-thunder yarns about Africa, as an outlet maybe for repressed blood-and-thunder impulses of their own. Both of these examples salivated over the process of human head shrinkage, though Cotlow shows no compunction in distancing himself from all he observes.
For the cover art of Legend of the Jivaro , Yma Sumac was photographed crouching behind a cooking pot. Dry ice froths out of the pot and Sumac, in an unaccustomed state of undress, flashes the spectacular whites of her eyes at a shrunken head that hangs in front of her. Behind her, naked Indians are throwing up their hands, either in ritual dance moves or dismay.
It functioned magically, and its means of influence can be compared to a kind of possession Michel Leiris, Manhood, The ultimate goal of the true exotic is to erase history, stop time, manufacture memories; by force of will to fabricate an identity based on ethnic and cultural characteristics that have never before existed; to become a fabulous island, rising out of the sea, then sinking once more into the abyss.
Probably the only place in which I could have lived at ease would have been some uncivilised tropical land where I could not speak the language. Now that I think of I realize that from earliest childhood I felt a yearning toward those intense summers of the kind that are seething forever in savage lands. No matter how stupid and generally exploitative such films might have been; they registered the need for a more open attitude to sex. Consequently several movies were made purporting to depict native life in darkest Africa.
Among them: Bowanga! A striking illustration of the mania for exotic decoration as a setting for sin is provided by the famous photographs of Sarah Bernhardt reclining in the midst of semi-Oriental luxury, against a stagy background of tiger skins, velvets and silk hangings, like a panther lying in wait for its prey in a claustrophobic, incense-heavy atmosphere. As a boy, the Marquis had seen half-naked Gypsy women in Turkish Bosnia; the impression was lasting.
The imagination of von Bayros was morbid, clearly tormented, yet lightened by playful self-mockery. In his work, only rarely did men penetrate women. Mostly, they chose or are forced to watch, to masturbate or sniff shoes. The pencil, the pen and interior decor were ideal media for realising the exotic, theatrical, supposedly perverted fictions of erotic desire in this period, though fake harem photographs of turbaned European women fellating turbaned European men were not uncommon either.
The movie people claimed it would be an insult to the black people of the United States. I bet it would go over today. Again, I was trying to explain to them that I was different, I do everything different. When they banned it, it had already sold a million. When they banned it, it sold another quarter of a million.
Picked out from the troupe as a relatively uninhibited body beautiful, she was persuaded to expose her breasts when she danced. All she wore was a bright pink feather tucked between her thighs and a ring of feathers circling her ankles and neck. Alex swung her around in a slow cartwheel Josephine and Joe then engaged in a primitive mating dance, filled with ardent passion.
Mister McLuhan says that the whole world is going oriental and that no-one will be able to retain his or her identity. Not even the orientals. And of course we travel round the world a lot and in the last five or six years we too have noticed this thing to be true. In this particular segment, ladies and gentlemen, we have adjusted our perspective to that of the kangaroo and the didgeridoo.
The peculiarities of these hybrids captivated others who suffered crises of identity. For Takemitsu, Japanese traditional music evoked the horrors of the war years. When the war ended, he decided to become a composer. She danced encircled by rhinestone-studded bananas that rose up around her waist like a girdle of sparkling erections. Duke Ellington raised contradictions also.
His exoticisms were the product of an enquiring mind, a life of travel and a need to explore the sensuality of tone coloration in a bankable context. The featured Cotton Club singers and dancers completed the exotic image. He was called a human boa constrictor and became an immediate sensation. For Buzz, the drumming is sheer barbarism. He staggers out of nightclubs, clutching his war-wounded head, complaining that the jungle music is driving him crazy. The band should have come out roaring, as Dorsey had done.
When the song ended, there were no whistles, no shouts; just good, strong, long-lasting applause. To the drummer belongs the world of Edgard Varese and his realm of raw sounds. In , for example, he accompanied a' public recital by the black soprano Abbie Mitchell, who had been married to Will Marion Cook, composer of pieces such as In Dahomey and In Abyssinia.
McPhee also wrote pieces inspired by the rhythms of machines in the hope of finding an accessible style that reached out to a less elite audience, one that connected to daily life. Then a small event changed the course of his life. In the late twenties, McPhee heard recordings of Balinese gamelan music, records made by German companies with the assistance of Walter Spies, a German painter and musician who lived on Bali, and then brought back to New York by friends of McPhee after an Indonesian sojourn.
Though McPhee claimed that this first encounter with the great passion of his life was accidental, biographer Carol J. Oja sees it as inevitable. Through a widening circle of friends, McPhee came in touch with several key figures, including especially the anthropologist Jane Belo, the writer Carl Van Vechten, and the artist Miguel Covarrubias, all of whom were involved in exotic explorations.
By he found himself at the edge of an exciting musical frontier. Belo and McPhee married in ; Belo was aware that her exotica new husband was homosexual yet she approached the relationship in a spirit of psychological experiment. Following Covarrubias, they decided to travel to Bali. For McPhee, the journey was escapist, a nostalgic flight from modernism and the brute thrust of capitalist values.
It is strange that another ten years should find me in Java and Bali where music sounded exactly like that. In , they returned to look for property. Finding a site in Sayan, a small village near Ubud, they built a house of four buildings with two kitchens. Collecting information, absorbing music and the island, McPhee lost the motivation to compose. The book is magical, like the document of a dream so rich and detailed as to be a seductive substitute for waking life.
Strange to discover, then, in retrospect, the circumstances under which it was written. In his Bali field notes Colin occasionally alluded to affairs with Balinese men, but he was mostly discreet and extremely private. Several of his friends have suggested that one of the appeals of Bali was its openness to homosexuality. James Clifford questions the taboo. Indeed in certain travel circuits, such as the nineteenth-century voyage en Orient , it was quasi-obliga- tory.
A popular writer such as Pierre Loti consecrated his authority, his access to the mysterious and feminised Other, through stories of sexual encounter. In fieldwork accounts, however, such stories have been virtually nonexistent. In Sans Soleil, as elsewhere, Marker uses the alienation experienced in travel as the opening trope for meditations on other types of modern distances- the distance between East and West, between past and present between personal and historical time, and finally, between the filmed and the filmmaker, the perceived and the perceiver This I did deliberately and would do again and again, for it seemed the only thing that was real.
The Balinese period was simply a long extension of this. Brett speculates that orientalism spoke for a deeper text in his music, the sexual leanings that he was unable to express freely, both through his own conservatism and e repressive attitudes of his time.
Paradise lost. He went to sleep dreaming of an active Japanese script moving around him, as though he had somehow already entered the inner mental world of Japan. Nothing else will do, even though or maybe because this is a generalised East, full of Eastern promise. This was the East of the ancient navigators, so old, so mysterious, resplendent and sombre, living and unchanged, full of danger and promise.
Forced into captaincy of a trading steamship, he sees only decline, the collapse of beauty into functionalism and hard commerce, the end of sail, the adventure of old Asia revealed as naked Empire. A glut of new stimuli was flooding in from the technological future, the geographically remote, the culturally alien.
Steamers brought change and destruction. In an instant the subtle melancholy of things touched by decay had fallen on her in the sunshine; she was but a speck in the brilliant emptiness of space, already lonely, already desolate. Technology carries them to paradise, or records it, yet erases the fantasy of utopia on impact. Sophistication, then as now, was condemned as a pernicious alienation from nature and the primal self.
Comparing the work of Pierre Loti with two of his admirers, the Irish writer J. Born on the island of Leucadia now Levkas in , Hearn was abandoned by his Irish father and Greek mother. After a difficult childhood in Dublin, he travelled to London, then America. Finally settling in Japan, Hearn became a naturalised Japanese, taking the name Koizumi Yakumo, and lived there until his death in The brain had all boiled away, save a small waste lump at the base of the skull about the size of a lemon.
It was crisped and still warm to the touch. On pushing a finger through the crisp, the interior felt about the consistency of banana fruit. The artist is the person who can go between them. The cars are immobile, film-fixated, but the way they are ranked, pointing in a V towards the huge screen, gives the impression that they are racing forward, like penitents running into the healing arms of an evangelist.
Behind the huge screen, a sparkle of city lights, like fireflies over a field, and then beyond that, another sky, sulphurous and poisoned. Turner had lived in the twentieth century, painting traffic tailbacks and exhaust emissions, this would be his sky The distance between the screen world of exotic extremes and the mundane world off-screen was stretched to absurdity and beyond. Fears, paranoias and social panics were parcelled for easy comprehension, then sucked dry in an ecstatic rush.
Often working for American International Pictures under the aegis of producer Roger Corman, Baxter wrote soundtracks for more than seventy films. Most of these films were B-pictures; many dipped below the alphabet into letters from unknown tongues. Creatively awful. It was pretty traumatic for a ten year old.
It must have been worse for an adult. Les Baxter was forty-six when he worked on this film. Despite his elevated ambitions he survived at this lowly level, also working extensively in television. If Baywatch had been primetime thirty- five years ago, Les would have taken the call.
In the true spirit of exploitation, a film score would take two weeks at the most. He would make a picture at breakneck speed, I would score it quickly while he went on to the next one. Actually, some of the titles in my filmography are things I could never dream of scoring.
In The Sound of the City , Charlie Gillett identified five distinct forms of popular music that surfaced between the years and This artificially cheerful situation was about to change. Then, they discovered they could sell a lot of records with just four or five guys in a rock group, they became disinterested in strings.
Baxter continued to make these easy listening records, but they were overshadowed artistically by the more personalised expression of his exotica obsessions. Here was the immovable object meeting the irresistible force. A family take a fishing trip. While they are relaxing in the mountains, Los Angeles is destroyed in a nuclear attack. Society in chaos..
Features Frankie Avalon. Cinematography by Floyd Crosby. Goldfoot and the Bikini Machine Young female robots constructed by mad scientist Dr. Goldfoot are programmed to seduce wealthy men. Features Frankie Avalon and Annette Funicello. How To Stuff a Wild Bikini. Bomb culture. Launched at the Paris fashion shows of July , the bikini was devised by an engineer named Louis Reard.
Bikini Atoll is grouped among the many Pacific islands that constitute the Marshall Islands, Micronesia. The inhabitants were persuaded to leave their home for a smaller island, where they found that a very limited stock of food had been provided for them by the Americans. The natural resources of the island itself compared badly with Bikini Atoll. In a short time, all of them began to suffer from malnutrition. Meanwhile, two atomic bombs were exploded on the atoll, both of them a similar size to the bomb dropped on Nagasaki at the end of the war.
A later blast, far larger than the Nagasaki and Hiroshima bombs, showered a deadly radioactive dust on nearby fishermen and the islanders. Coconuts were blown off trees by the atomic wind, exacerbating the food crisis. After paradise had been irradiated and blasted, American teen- culture created its own temporary idyll in California. Youth culture, a growing economic force, required chronicles, demanded product. The world shivered in the chill threats of the Cold War.
The next day my eyes were glued shut, and I had these horrible blisters all over my face, but I still went to work. A surfer, guitarist and electronics enthusiast who lived on the beach in Southern California, he wanted to make music that captured the essence of surfing. One day I just started picking faster and faster like a locomotive.
I wanted to make it sound hard and powerful. There was nothing subtle about it. When Dale stopped to make space for a saxophone solo, it was as if three of the horses had collapsed and died. Tom Wolfe caught a celebrity appearance by Dale at a Burbank teen fair. They draped themselves loosely around invasions from without — space monsters, voodoo zombies, revivified mummies, commie rockets - or they sparked paranoid alarms of panic within - biker gangs, body snatchers, vertical corpses, vampires roaming the suburbs - ensuring teen appeal by a judicious combination of fixations.
They were dedicated to the alienated outsider: the alien, the creature, the thing, the biker, the drunk, the lonely surfer, the man who shrinks to nothing, the woman who grows into a fifty-foot monster, the man with X-ray eyes whose nightmare of perception was to see through the surface of society, so incurring his own destruction. They emit music the way the twentieth century is equipped to receive it. The language of an island, emerging from the deeps. In his study of American chain-restaurant architecture, Orange Roofs, Golden Arches , Philip Langdon documented inventions that swept through the business of serving food.
The electronic ordering system was one gadget that took off during the fifties. This convoluted story describes the arrival of the first electric guitar in the United States. The object, flat and shaped like a frying pan, was carried from Hawaii over towering Pacific rollers, born aloft by four big-wave surfers who braved shark attack and storms. Cast from aluminium, the guitar blazed so fiercely in the sun that the surfers wore whalebone sunglasses, acquired through trade with northern hemisphere Inuit, to protect themselves from blindness.
They landed near Ventura, California, and walked south to Los Angeles. Broke and exhausted, the surf kings picked up loose change in a Tiki shack on the edge of Watts by demonstrating the electrical invention, played in their so-called Kekuku style. This was something rarely seen before in America: sliding a broad two- edged, gut-sticker knife along amplified strings to conjure mind movies of rupturing hi-tension wires, bears on fire, smokestack lightning, thunder over Pyramid Lake, a landslide in Death Valley, a Japanese typhoon.
Copies were manufactured, coated in new plastics and mirror chrome, finished in colours of shocking pink, baby blue, the new rays of the rising sun, their shapes pulled in all directions as if melted in the heat. The invention inspired a whole new way of living.
Somehow, the future seemed to be wrapped up in the aluminium frying pan and busting to break out. A coven of occult bikers from Bakersfield tuned into the story and turned their hogs south. Lured into a peyote ceremony, the Hawaiians wandered in the underworld; the bikers stole the guitar and headed home but the legend says that their leader was blinded by the lights of a UFO hovering in the Mojave desert. Shaken to the soles of his motorcycle boots, he pushed the guitar onto a bewildered cowboy in a bar on the outskirts of Tehachapi.
Crazed by corn liquor and snakes, the cowboy worked up a high octane routine that seemed to the desert pilgrims of southern California to speak in devil tongues. In time, the cowboy - Hasil was his name - truly believed he had plucked something original out of thin air. But news of the invention had already spread from the Tiki shack like shock waves from a depth-charge explosion. When the Russians launched Sputnik 1 a fire was lit under the backside of every electric guitar strangler in the world.
There were guitarists who had tuned their instruments to the pitch of ocean surf or hot-rod engines; some knocked amplifier valves halfway out of their sockets, twisting and spiking the sound of gleaming steel strings into barbed wire. But the dark void of space and distant planets The electrical frying pan and its offspring had permeated every zone of the globe - from Thailand to Congo, from England to Kalimantan. Tracking the glow of the Sputnik as it fell below the edge of the world, guitarists dressed in space suits would stand in front of their space- age amplifiers, bleeping and howling in awe-struck homage.
So began the modern era. Scorpio ranting. Nazi flags. Assorted shots of bikers in Coney Island. The Back posing. A guy spilling out in the motorcycle race. A skull. A dead hel- meted face seen under a red strobe. Thompson in Hell's Angels. Yet in other ways they were as new as television. This outsider art demanded exotic, otherworldly sound design, its populism introducing an expanded sonic vocabulary to the teen audience.
Musically, an obsession with weirdness, threat and rebellion merged with instrumentals that represented marginalised American communities. No guitarists were more daring. In between convoluted, metallic blues runs and cliffhanging silences, Watson slides, slurs and chops his way over the fret board of his Fender guitar. An earthy eccentric who reconciled image gimmickry with sonic invention, Bo Diddley recorded two guitar instrumentals remarkable for their tightly concentrated exoticas.
Looking at photographs on the covers of Bo Diddley albums and 7-inch EPs, we see the bizarre shapes he created for his guitars: elongated tail-fins, like spacecraft; a red rectangle; a covering of pink fur, like a benign synthetic bathroom-rug-creature knocked up for a Roger Corman B-quickie. In the background, a piano tinkles its counterpoint, a muttering from the old world. At Chess Records, there was a misguided attempt to finesse Bo into the world of surf sonics.
In the unlikely event of Bo Diddley wanting to research his surf album, he would have been carried off the beach on a stretcher. Despite its musical roots in black R8tB, its Chicano musicians, its gymnastic roots in Hawaii, the image of Californian surfing was Aryan, a pursuit of leisured blonds who wanted to darken their skin temporarily and walk on water. Like John Lee Hooker and Bo Diddley, his approach to the electric guitar seemed unfettered by precedent.
The nature of the beast was grasped. To the casual listener, the conflict of culture versus nature generated fairly similar end products: basic electric music played with aggression. By the nineties, Fankhauser was presenting a five-nights-a-week surf music television show in California.
Appropriately for oceanic music created by suburban teens, there were two sides to guitar-driven surf music: either mystical, atmospheric, dreamy or pounding, physical, aggressive. Though neither act is now associated with the surf subcult, Santo and Johnny and Sandy Nelson represented the binary opposition.
As for the one-footed Hollywood session drummer Sandy Nelson, his drum instrumentals seemed direct descendants of Les Baxter Latin bongo-party albums such as Skins! If Baxter hoped to cash in on teenage drum mania, his efforts were sabotaged by their cool sophistication. However, the extra mobility this gave was neutralised by the enormous space suits in which the group played live in those early times.
This was the difficult career path of disappearing for thirty years and then springing back into view at a sympathetic moment of retrospective curiosity: a Tarantino moment, a Jim Jarmusch moment. Having launched the surf instrumental craze in the early sixties, Dick Dale vanished from sight, emerging again after Pulp Fiction as a hard-ass, ponytail desert mystic who incorporated didgeridoo and Native American chants into a thunderous tremolando twang otherwise unchanged since his first recordings.
Though Hendrix believed he had spoken the last word on surf music, Dick Dale ended up the survivor. Also unchanged, except for the loss of an impressively surly facial expression and a personnel change in his Arrows, was Davie Allan. Walled up in cover band purgatory during the seventies, Allan suddenly discovered dedicated fans who cherished his bruising, distorted biker instrumentals.
Film director Jim Jarmusch was among them. Regrettably, the bikers who inspired the music had aged less well. When Davie Allan played at the Love Ride, a Californian charity event, the bikers complained that he was too loud. Les Baxter had scored a number of biker films, but disliked certain aspects of the job. Working under the auspices of a school friend, the notorious Mike Curb, Allan recorded a stream of delirious instrumentals, not always thoroughly familiar with their ultimate cinematic destination.
Despite cashing in with soundtracks for such AIP exploitation classics as Riot on Sunset Strip and Wild in the Streets , he was a staunch Nixon supporter who in - as the twenty-six-year- old president of MGM Records - purged that label of all known drug users. A lot of times they would just take pre-recorded stuff and kind of cut it up. Les Baxter, carrying that burning symphonic desire in his back pocket, was struggling with the set-up.
Set in the near future, the film pandered to a growing teenage demand for independence from parental controls with a plot about a pop singer elected as US President. Baxter was clearly unhappy about the practice of mixing pop music into the underscore. But they left it off the LP, which is a pity. As it happened, his arrival in Hawaii coincided with the culmination of the three-month festival of dancing and sports known as the Makahiki.
It was January, the climax of the season of rough seas and high surf, when warfare was forbidden and men and women left their work in the fields to swim and play in the ocean. The god of surfing, aboard his big canoe, had returned.
Both the Hawaiian surfer and the Chinese martial artist were athletic exotics who spearheaded crazes in America and worked in feature films. Surfing up and down the Californian coast, he drew increasing numbers of converts to this strange sport of standing still on an unstable surface. According to George S. People went away humming the melodies and making the Hawaii Pavilion one of the most popular at the exposition. In , more Hawaiian records were sold on the mainland than any other type of popular music.
Instrumentalists all over the world took up the two main instruments associated with Hawaiian music: slide guitar and ukulele. Whereas the ukulele can be traced to Portuguese origins, steel guitar technique was invented by a Hawaiian musician. A number of conflicting claims to this invention have surfaced, but the most convincingly documented evidence points to a young guitarist from Laie, on Oahu, named Joseph Kekuku. He was walking along the railway strumming his guitar, according to his story, when he picked up a bolt, slid it across the guitar strings, and effected the characteristic slur of the steel Kekuku progressed from bolt, pocket comb, knife, and tumbler to the steel bar which he designed and made himself in the school shop.
Clifford asks how the family retained its sense of identity during nearly six decades of presenting exotic music in to them exotic locations. And how, currently, is their music being recycled in the continuing invention of Hawaiian authenticity? For musicians who constantly tour the world, their music embodies a portable and fluid, though nonetheless sustained and sustaining sense of place.
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The creative and very easy way of working together great communication, always on time with roughs and final art and the beautiful results were the reasons why we worked with her together again and will definitely ask her again for another project. It was just perfect to work with Ella on our editorial project, a special edition for watches.
I fell in love with her illustrations and was determined to bring together the combination of actual photography and her style of illustration. The briefing phase was easy, but the following adjustments required some intense work. Ella handled the situation quiet, very professional and was open for my ideas. Her creative approach and our needs met in a beautiful artwork and I'm very happy with the outcome. I would love to work with her again, and would definitely recommend her for other projects.
Working with Ella was a wonderful experience. Signed by leading illustr…. Adobe Pro. Ella Tjader is a member of Creative Cloud. Tag your projects with "Tools Used" to surface the tools you are proficient in. Members get access to creative products and services, exclusive training content and more.
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I was fortunate enough to see Ella Tjader's previous work and engage her on a project to design the artwork for my new Bath Salt Collection. I found Ella to be reliable, professional and efficient at meeting deadlines and producing beautiful, quality artwork. Her work was exactly what I was looking for to represent my products. I was so impressed with her botanical artwork, that I've booked her for another larger project. We worked with Ella for the second time now on an editorial illustration that required a lot of creative input as we ourselves weren't quite sure how to transform our idea into an illustration.
Ella was simply perfect for the job, went with our idea, put her creativity into it, truly understood what would fit perfectly with the style of the magazine and then adapted it to our requirements. The creative and very easy way of working together great communication, always on time with roughs and final art and the beautiful results were the reasons why we worked with her together again and will definitely ask her again for another project.
It was just perfect to work with Ella on our editorial project, a special edition for watches. I fell in love with her illustrations and was determined to bring together the combination of actual photography and her style of illustration.
The briefing phase was easy, but the following adjustments required some intense work. Ella handled the situation quiet, very professional and was open for my ideas. Her creative approach and our needs met in a beautiful artwork and I'm very happy with the outcome. Ella Tjader spent her childhood drawing and painting princesses in puffy dresses and antiquity sculptures, while attending various art classes.
While studying Graphic Design, she fell in love with Adobe Illustrator and created her first portfolio as a freelance illustrator. Signed by leading illustr…. Adobe Pro. Ella Tjader is a member of Creative Cloud. Tag your projects with "Tools Used" to surface the tools you are proficient in.
Members get access to creative products and services, exclusive training content and more. Learn More. Top Tools Used Illustrator. Member Since: September 4, Report. Love is Love Ella Tjader. Ritzenhoff Leopard Glass design Ella Tjader. Ritzenhoff Passionflower Glass design Ella Tjader. Green tenderness Ella Tjader. Grow your love Ella Tjader.
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