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In fourteen tutorial based chapters, the author guides you through all the necessary commands and options in SOLIDWORKS , from sketching to parametric. One of the advantages of building your own airplane is that, if you build it, you can fix it. Repairs to sheet metal airplanes fall into two categories. Do you want to increase your SolidWorks modeling skills by modeling an In this lesson you will learn modeling the fuselage of the OS MERCENARIOS 3 FILME COMPLETO DUBLADO DOWNLOAD UTORRENT FOR FREE If you don't. Keep these things much for responding. Column: Allow - enhance our provider the categories can to share the for health care - The websites examples and we can take a.

From basic shapes and sketches, almost anything can be created using a variety of tools and templates that every CAD program provides. If you're new to a 3D modeling program, most will have introductory tutorials so that you can get familiar with the software. This isn't a Fusion tutorial, I'm just going to show the basic functionality of 3D CAD software so that you can get started in any program you want. Some programs are a bit different than the one I'll be using, because they are set up differently, but don't be alarmed!

Hopefully you'll still be able to figure them out. Your first step should be to find a 3D modeling program that suits your needs. There are a few below that I've listed. Try them out and lets start designing! Most 3D design software allows you to create a couple different file types. Nearly all of them allow you to create part files and assembly files, because every product is either a single element or a combination of different pieces.

Parts represent single components, and assemblies represent combinations of parts or other assemblies. Drawings, a less used file type, are 2D visualizations of 3D designs that help designers convey information about their part or assembly to others on a single sheet of paper. Design programs can also contain other file types that can help designers and engineers present, simulate, animate, or manufacture their designs. The file itself sits in the center of the environment, and the tools to manipulate the file are located around the edges.

Again, if you are using a different program, these tools may be in different places, but I will go through the most common tools and things that you'll see in your window when you open up a file. These tools located in the bottom center of the window are used to view your model in different orientations.

With these tools, you can rotate, pan, or zoom in on your file, and even set the viewing angle normal to a specific face or plane. With these tools, you can focus your window on certain aspects of the design if you are working on them. These tools will also allow you to change the background, perspective, and lighting on your part. The design history bar displays all of the actions you have taken to edit your design. This tool is fairly common in design software, and incredibly useful as it allows you to go back and edit past actions you have taken in your design, including alter dimensions, remove or change features, or just scroll back and restart from a certain point.

This tool is also handy in that it allows you and others to see how you created the part. The Feature Tree, like the Design History, keeps track of your work. However, instead of displaying your work chronologically, it displays it by type of operation. In a part document, you could use the Feature Tree to see all of the sketches you have added to the part, and you can choose to view or hide operations, bodies, and features.

In an assembly, you could use the Feature Tree to see what parts you have and how they are connected to each other. The Toolbar is a very important component of CAD software, it is what allows you to actually create 3D shapes. Each section of the toolbar contains features or actions that allow you to form and edit your model. While the organization of the tools in each CAD program will be different, most of the features you will almost always be able to find somewhere along the many tabs of your CAD program's toolbar.

If you can't find a specific tool, don't worry! It may go by a different name, so you could try searching for a term within your program or looking online. Before we start actually building things, I'd like to bring up some important pieces of 3D design software: reference geometries. These are planes, axes, and points that you can use to locate your part and its features in 3D space.

All files will start out with the base reference geometries, centered around the origin, or the "zero-point", which the CAD software defines as the point 0,0,0 in 3D space. CAD programs function in a Cartesian coordinate system, so all points are defined by x,y, and z distances from the origin. All of these reference geometries can be referenced in sketches and features when designing the part.

Sketches, which I'll talk about soon, are defined by the plane that they lie on, and within sketches and other features, the axes and the origin can be referenced to create dimensions. You can also create new planes, axes, and points elsewhere in your 3D model, which I'll go into a bit more later.

Part files are the basic components of 3D design software. Part files represent single components or pieces that can either be their own entity or part of a larger assembly, which I'll cover later. When designing a part, you can use a wide range of 2D sketching utilities and 3D forming tools in the modeling software to create the specific 3D shape that you want. For example, the computer front panel in the image above was created using a variety of extrusions, sculpting, and cutting features, and the car wheel rim was made with revolve, hole, and chamfer features, among other things.

Both started as simple shapes and step by step the designer created the finished, detailed model. A manufacturer can use the file to obtain information about how to make the part, including the dimensions and tolerances, the material, and even the final paint coating the part should get.

Alright, lets start simple, in two dimensions. Within a part file, the sketch toolbar allows you to create 2D drawings that you can then use to generate 3D shapes, or just use for reference when designing a part. By clicking "Create Sketch", you can select a plane or face on which to start your sketch.

A toolbar will open up with various sketch actions you can take; these include drawing tools, constraints, and dimension tools. The basic drawing tools will allow you to create some basic shapes, like rectangles, circles, arcs, polygons, and even text.

Note that in Fusion , closed shapes get filled in, while open shapes do not. When sketches are initially drawn, they are unconstrained. There are no dimensions or constraints associated with a line when it is first created, so you are free to move it around on the sketch plane. It is good practice in CAD programs to dimension and constrain your sketches appropriately so that they don't accidentally get messed up or altered.

The quadrilateral in the first image above is only constrained in that one of its vertices is at the origin. Apart from that, I can select any of the lines or points in the sketch and drag them around. To make the shape I want, I need to use the dimension tool to make it the correct size, and the constraints to create the relationships I want between the four lines.

In the third image, you'll see I've used the dimension tool to set angles and dimensions that I want. This tool fixes those components at those specific dimensions. However, the shape can still move a fair amount, because it is not fully constrained. Instead of dimensioning every aspect of the shape, I can use the constraints toolbar to set certain rules for the shape. In the fourth image, you can see that I have used some constraints to set some rules for my shape.

I made the bottom line horizontal, I made the top line parallel to the bottom one, and I set the left and right lines equal to one another. I have now fully defined the parallelogram. In some programs, if a sketch feature is fully defined and can no longer move, it will turn a different color to let you know that it no longer able to move. While it is important to fully define your sketches when finalizing your model both to convey to others the dimensions, and to ensure you wont accidentally change something about your part, you may want to leave a sketch unconstrained so that you can play around with its size and shape and see how it affects your 3D model.

I'm not going to cover every single tool there is, but I will cover some of the most common sketch tools available so that you know what kinds of functions you can perform within a sketch. Spline: A smooth line that will curve and adapt to intercept multiple defined points in the sketch and maintain its continuity. Offset: Creates a similar feature to the selected entity that is offset by a given distance from the selection if the selection is a closed loop, it will offset the entire loop outside or inside the selection.

Trim: Trims a line down to the nearest endpoint Example: if there were two intersecting lines, and the trim tool was used on one side of one line, it would remove that side and create an endpoint to the trimmed line at the intersection. Extend: Extends a line to the next endpoint Example: A line is drawn within a box, when the extend tool is used, the line's endpoints will extend to the edges of the box.

Construction Lines: Converts selected lines into "construction lines", meaning that they can be used for alignment or guiding sketches, but are not a part of the "real" sketch They don't interfere with closed loops or extruded features. Once you have drawn a sketch, there are few things you can do with it to take it into three dimensions. The sketches themselves define the shape or path of the feature, and different features will do different things to bring the sketch into three dimensions.

When I say feature, I am referring to the action that I have performed in the workspace. Features can be any action that alters the model, and they will come up in the design history and feature tree. If you want to edit a feature that have created, all you have to do is go into the sketch that defines its shape and alter the desired portions of the sketch.

The four most common types of actions are extrudes, revolves, sweeps, and lofts. All of these operations can either add or subtract material from a 3D body depending on what you want the operation to do to your part. With these tools most 3D shapes can be created, and then other tools are used to edit and refine the part.

An extrude is the simplest tool needed to bring an object into 3D. What an extrude does is "pull" a 2D sketch straight up into the third dimension, as shown in the image. You can also use an extrude to cut away material from existing bodies. To use the extrude feature, you select a closed loop in your sketch, and then set a height you want the sketch to extend to or cut to.

To set the height, you can either set the height to a specified dimension or allow the shape to extrude to a selected plane, surface, or vertex in the part. In some programs, you can extrude and add a taper at the same time, so that the feature's sides get smaller at one end. This draft or taper can assist the design process when designing for manufacturing process like injection molding, and it can also come in handy when you are creating conical or pyramid like shapes.

A revolve takes a closed loop in a sketch and rotates the loop around a drawn line or axis. While extrudes create planar, prismatic geometries, revolves create spherical and torus-like features. To use the revolve feature, you select the closed loop that you want to revolve, then select the axis you want to revolve it around.

Afterward, you can either set the angle at which you want your revolve to extend to, or you can revolve the part up to a certain surface, vertex, or plane. The sweep function is a lot more freeform than the extrude or revolve functions, because it allows you to take a closed loop sketch and drag or "sweep" it out along a path. Sweeps require two sketches: one defining the profile to be swept, and the other defining the path to sweep the profile along.

Sweeps allow more complicated shapes to be formed, because instead of just extruding or revolving a sketch, you are dragging a sketch out along what could be a very complicated spline or curve. To use the sweep feature, select the loop that you wish to sweep the first sketch , and then select the path you want to sweep it along the second sketch. If the path is too complicated and the loop profile is too large, the sweep may fail. Lofts are another more complicated 3D feature.

Similarly to how ships are drafted and built slice by slice, lofts allow you to select different sketches on multiple planes to create streamlined, curving geometries with non-uniform cross sections. To use the loft tool, select in order the sketches that you wish to be a part of the loft. An optional step to creating a loft entails creating sketches with "guide curves", which act like sweeps in that they direct where certain points on the loft should go as the cross sections move from one shape to the next.

After you have used some of the extrude, revolve, sweep, or loft features, you can do a couple more things to touch up your model and manipulate it to produce the desired result. Here are a few more actions you can take. Notice they are pretty similar to some of the sketch actions.

Fillet: Rounds edges and corners to a given radius. Once the part is actually manufactured, fillets prevent sharp corners. Filleting inside corners is always a good idea because rounded internal edges relieve stresses on the part and prevent shearing. Chamfer: Chamfers create an angled face on selected edges or corners. While they are mostly added for aesthetic appeal, they can be used on parts that slide into one another to make the insertion process smoother.

Shell: Hollows out the interior of a selected body to a given wall thickness. Specified faces can be removed from the body. Draft: Angles selected faces to a specified degree. Draft angles are useful when designing parts for molding procedures. Holes: Allows you to place any type of hole at specified points.

These include holes based on drill bit size, clearance holes, threaded holes specified by screw type, countersinks, counterbores, etc. So what happens if you do an extrude cut or some similar operation and end up with multiple pieces in your part? While the entire thing is technically still one "part", it is split up into multiple fixed bodies.

Multiple bodies can intersect yet still be of the same part, and operations can be performed on bodies to manipulate the part that you are making. For example, if you have explored some of the options within extrudes, revolves, sweeps, and lofts, you may have noticed a "new body" or "merge body" option.

These selections allow you to create a new body with your feature yet still have it possibly intersect the old one , or include the new feature as part of the original body. If you already have multiple bodies in your part, you can add, subtract, or intersect them to achieve different types of new bodies with the old ones.

The four images above show the two separate bodies, and the two bodies joined, cut, and intersected in that order. Intersect: Creates one body comprising of the intersection between the original bodies. While sketches can be made on any flat face, sometimes you'll need to sketch on more than just the three origin planes and any faces you may have made from other features.

Reference geometries allow you to create new planes, axes, and vertices other than the default reference geometries that appear when you start a new part. To fully define reference geometries, you'll need to select multiple details from your design that will "fix" the geometry in place. For example, in order to fully define a plane, you would need 3 points.

To fully define a line, you need 2 points. Here are some other options when it comes to defining reference geometry:. Some 3D CAD software will allow you to naturally form and sculpt your models in a much more natural way than the loft tools can. With forming features you can take a basic 3D object, like a sphere, cube, or prism, and shape it by dragging and sculpting the shapes faces, edges and vertices instead of editing and manipulating precise dimensions for shapes drawn in a sketch.

Don't forget your eye protection. When removing rivets, do not drill any farther than the rivet head. Do not attempt to drill into the sheet metal itself. After drilling into the head, use a pin punch to pry off the rivet head. Then use a punch smaller than the rivet shank to drive the rivet out of the hole. Your goal is to remove the rivet without enlarging its hole or damaging the sheet metal. The strength of a riveted piece is based upon the rivet's expanded diameter.

This is why it's important to drill out the rivet using the proper size drill and to replace it with a rivet of the proper diameter and length. The length must be such that the shop head driven head of the rivet must expand to form a head that is 1. Rivets may be cut to proper length using a rivet cutter.

What kind of replacement rivet you'll use also depends on whether you can reach the backside of the rivet. If you can hold a bucking bar on it or apply a rivet squeezer, use the same type of rivet that originally filled the hole. If you cannot reach the rivet's backside, you'll need to use an aviation-grade blind rivet.

Using a blind rivet eliminates the possible need to cut an access hole in the surface to apply a bucking bar to a standard rivet. There are many different types of blind rivets available, such as friction-lock cherry rivets, CherryMAX rivets, mechanical-lock cherry rivets, etc. A special tool must be used to install most of these rivets. Scratches happen, and you should repair them to prevent corrosion from taking place.

In addition, scratches can lead to cracks. To prevent this, in most cases you can burnish or polish scratches smooth, and the best tool to use is a high-speed grinder with a Cratex abrasive wheel. This special, rubberized wheel is designed for use on sheet metal. Available at most industrial supply houses, it will allow you to easily remove the damaged area without further damage.

You can repair a small dent with a filler material. SuperFil is an ideal filler material because it does not shrink with time. Bondo filler tends to shrink after being applied. Apply the SuperFil with a squeegee, let it dry overnight, sand it smooth, and touch up the area with paint.

Small cracks are a common problem on sheet metal airplanes. Created by vibration, you'll often find them developing on areas like the engine cowling. The common fix is to "stop drill" the crack with a small diameter drill bit. In other words, you drill a small hole at each end of the crack in the hope of stopping its growth. This fix is not a repair. To repair the crack, after you stop drill it, rivet a small sheet metal patch of the same type and thickness metal over the crack to restore the area's strength and to keep vibration from acting on it further see Figure 1.

If you have a crack in a 0. Then cut a small patch out of a piece of 0. Rounded or several-sided patches are preferable over a square patch. AC 1B is your reference for determining the patch's rivet layout. With the rivet layout complete, you can drill the holes using the proper size bit and hold the patch in place with Cleco fasteners. Once you're satisfied with the fit, remove the Cleco fasteners, apply zinc chromate to the backside of the patch to prevent corrosion from forming, and then rivet it in place.

Vibrations will cause a crack to extend if it is not repaired. Stop-drill the end of the crack to spread the stresses and prevent the crack extending. Rivet a small patch over the stop-drilled crack to stiffen the area and prevent vibration acting on the crack. It should be obvious that corrosion weakens sheet metal.

To prevent this, remove all corrosion you discover with fine sandpaper, Scotch-Brite pads, or aluminum wool. A high-speed grinder with a Cratex wheel is another good way to remove corrosion. Never use a steel wheel or a wire brush. After removing the corrosion, acid etch the aluminum by washing it with Poly-Fiber's E Acid Etch, diluted with water, or a similar product. An acid etch removes oil and light corrosion, and it etches or roughens the surface to create a good surface for the primer to bond to.

After thoroughly rinsing the area, wash it with E Conversion Coating. This inhibits corrosion and further enhances the primer adhesion. Rinse the area again and let it dry completely before priming and painting the surface. Depending on the corrosion's location, you might have to remove and replace rivets, and we discussed this process earlier.

In some cases, the corrosion might be so great you'll need to replace the sheet metal itself. Generally, this counts as a major repair, and you should seek assistance from knowledgeable sources before attempting the repair. Usually no displacement nor removal of metal. BURR -A small, thin section of metal extending beyond a regular surface, usually located at a corner or on the edge of a bore or hole. The corrosion products generally are easily removed by mechanical means.

Iron rust is an example of corrosion. CRACK -A physical separation of two adjacent portions of metal, evidenced by a fine or thin line across the surface, caused by excessive stress at that point. It may extend inward from the surface from a few thousandths inch to completely through the section thickness. CUT -Loss of metal, usually to an appreciable depth over a relatively long and narrow area, by mechanical means, as would occur with the use of a saw blade, chisel or sharp-edged stone striking a glancing blow.

DENT -Indentation in a metal surface produced by an object striking with force. The surface surrounding the indentation will usually be slightly upset. The eroded area will be rough and may be lined in the direction in which the foreign material moved relative to the surface. Usually no loss of metal or cracking of surface but generally showing similar appearance. GOUGE -Grooves in, or breakdown of, a metal surface from contact with foreign material under heavy pressure.

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